Lord Hayagreeva

Hayagreeva is an incarnation of Vishnu, depicted with a human body and a horse’s head, brilliant white in color, with white garments, seated on a white lotus. He has four lotus hands, with one in the mode of bestowing knowledge; another holds books of wisdom, and the other two hold the Conch and Discus. Special worship is conducted on the day of the full moon in August (Sravana-Paurnami) (his avatara-dina) and on Mahanavami, the ninth day of the Navaratri festival.

Story of Hayagriva

Long ago, lord Vishnu ( also known as Janardhana) and asuras was engaged in a war which lasted for  sixteen thousand years. At the end of the battle, because of lethargy, lord Vishnu went to a deep sleep in a standing posture, with his head supported by the tip of his peerless bow, unaware of his surroundings and stood as one whose life had become extinct. The Devas and the divine sages became worried noticing this, with the thought “who would protect the world if the great protector is sleeping?” Also, Vishnu’s presence was essential for the Yagna to be conducted in heaven. Even Brahma and Shiva were concerned about Vishnu’s state.

Lord Indra appealed himself before Lord Shiva and said, “O Lord, it is the time for the great yagna to be conducted by us. The world is descending into confusion as the Lord of the yagna, Lord Janardhana, is in deep sleep. Please help us!”. Shiva turned to Brahma and said, “Waking someone who is in deep sleep is a great sin. However, certain situations call for desperate measures. Among your infinte creations, I remember a tiny beetle, belonging to the Chel species. Let it eat the bowstring from the bottom as when the bow recoils from its tense state, the noise will wake Lord Vishnu up.”

As Shiva said, Brahma directed the insect to break the bowstring. When the string broke, the bow cracked with such a noise, that sounded like the end of the world. All those present got frightened by the horrible sound. Ill indications appeared in the air. The sun disappeared before its time. All creation started acting in a manner contrary to their normal behavior. When the Devas looked to see if Vishnu had woken, they noticed that the recoiling bow tip had beheaded Vishnu. Only his lifeless figure stood there, a grim sight that shook the beholders to the core of their being.

As a solution Brahma said, “The only thing we can do during this unpleasant time, is to pray to Devi who is the life force behind the universe. Everything that happens is according to her will. If Vishnu has been beheaded, she must have decided it to happen and only she can show us the path from our present hardship” Accordingly, all the Devas, Shiva and Brahma, started praying to Shakthi. They chanted acclaiming her ability, praising her great love for all her creations. They praised her as the force behind all the creation, one who controls the destiny of the universe.

At last, an immaterial voice was heard from the sky, “O Devas, you have nothing to worry. You have worshiped me as per the vedas. I am very much pleased. There is a reason why I beheaded Vishnu. Listen to this story.”

Long ago, there a great Asura king named Hayagreeva performed a great penance directed to me on the banks of the river Saraswati. When I appeared before him, he asked for the boon of immortality. When I told him that it was impossible, he then asked for a boon that he may be killed only by a creature with the face of a horse.

Energized by my boon, he abused the world for a long time. Nobody stayed safe from his harassing forces. I have decided that Vishnu should slay him. my will be shall accomplished as Brahma fit the body Hari(Lord Vishnu) with that of a horse head”

As per the instructions of Devi, immediately beheaded a horse with a sword and fitted Vishnu’s body with its head. Vishnu was transformed into a wondrous creature, of immense strength, with the body of a man, and with the head of a head by the grace of Devi. He was known as Hayagreeva(horse-headed). At the end of a vicious battle, the Asura Hayagreeva was killed by Vishnu, in his form as Hayagreeva. By the Devi’s grace, Vishnu regained his previous form at the end of this battle.


OM Sri HayaGreevaaya Namaha

Hayagreeva Moola Mantra:

“Uthgeetha prana vothgeetha

Sarva vakeeshwareshwara

Sarva veda mayachinthya

Sarvam bhodhaya bhodhaya”


Hayagreeva mantra:

”Gnanananda Mayam Devam Nirmala Spatika krutim
Aadharam Sarva Vidyanaam Hayagreevam Upasmahe.”

Hayagreeva Gayatri mantra:

”Aum Vanishwaraaya Vidmahe.
Haya Grivaaya Dhimahee.
Thanno Hayagriva Prachodayath.”

Mantra chanting benefits:

Prayers to Lord Hayagreeva are particularly beneficial in these degenerate times when illnesses and sufferings are growing due to the dominant misbeliefs of conscious beings. Daily chanting of this mantra is a highly beneficial for students to improve their studies. It also leads to divine path of life, sharpens one’s intellect and makes the person extremely alert. Worshiping Lord Hayagreeva brings clarity of mind and ability to communicate with others. Chanting moola mantra is benifited for those who suffer from emotional distress, stress, tensions, depression etc.

Vastu Shastra, Origin and its Principles

Vastu means abode or a house and Shastra means science or technology, i.e., it is the scientific method of house construction. In original Sanskrit language, Vastu Shastra means the dwelling of humans and gods. It considers a house to have a prana in it. And therefore, this science in a manner defines the communication between man and the cosmos. This science of direction combines all the five elements of nature and balances them with man and materials and thus the life in the house should provide the benefit of these elements. Vastushastra aims to create a subtle contributive atmosphere in a structure which helps one in bringing out the best, thereby paving the way for enhanced health, wealth, prosperity, and happiness in an enlightened environment. Vastu is very deep and ancient and can be described as universal, rational, beneficial, permanent, practical and utilitarian.

We are surrounded by a sequence of environmental threats in our day to day life which leads us to constant physical and mental instability, insecurity or disorders. The principle for healthy homes includes harmony with the environment, peace for the spirit and health for the human being. According to the worldwide cultures, Vastu Shastra has ingrained in the human experience and in traditions of home building. It is an immanent energy concept of science. We can realize the energy and see its application in different forms but is invisible to our naked eyes. Science is what that is up to the knowledge of mind is called science and spirituality is what beyond the knowledge of the mind. Beyond a science, Vastu is a bridge between man and nature thus teaching us the art of living.

The cosmic influence of the sun, its light, heat and solar energy, the wind direction, the moon’s position, the earth’s magnetic field and the influence of cosmos on our planet were kept in view while formulating the principles laid down in Vastu Shastra were formulated. The system is a fusion of science of directions, astronomy, and astrology. Vastu principles are Vedic philosophy aims at discovering the secret laws of the universe and to shape a pattern of everyday life from them. And therefore its principles were set accordingly so that Vastu Shastra can be labeled as geological, geometrical, geophysical, botanical and above all cosmological and celestial in nature. Vastu is fundamentally that art of perfect framework whereby one can place himself in such a manner so as to assimilate the maximum benefits of the paanchbhootas as well as the influence of the earth’s magnetic field. The scientific use of the elements creates an ideally stabilized environment, which assures the magnification of health, wealth, and prosperity.

The special characteristics and influences of using all the five elements of this universe were well-known to our sages and seers. So they derived scientific processes and systems and cramped them over the years as ‘Vastu Shastra’. It works on three principles of design that envelop the entire premise. The designed premise should satisfy the three basic principles such as bhogadyam, sukhadarsham and rumyu. According to these principles, the designed premises must be useful and practical in approach, pleasing to eyes in accordance with aesthetics and beneficial for the user and should be a part of its well-being.


Vastu is a part of Vedas which is believed to be four or five thousand years old. Vastu Shastra is originated from Stapatya Veda, a part of Atharva Veda and was followed acutely during the Mahabharat Era. During this era, a pioneer in architecture named Maya was, wrote a book called Maya-Mahatamya. Vishwakarma was also a pioneer who constructed Dwarka city. Brihut Samhita, Kashyap Shilpa Shastra, Vishvakarma Vastu, Maya Vastu, Mayamatam, Matsyapurana, Samaraanagana Sutradhaar etc are the various texts on this subject.

Samaraanagana Sutradhaar openly states:

Sukham Dhanaani Budhischa Santhathi Sarvadhaanrunam

Priyaaneyshaam Cha Samsiddhee Sarvamsyathu Subhalakshanam

Yatra Nindhit LakshmathraThahee-The-Sham-Vidhath Krith

Atha Sarvamupadeyam Yadveth Subhalakshanam

Desahpur Nivasas cha Sabhaveesma Sannaanicha

Yadhya Dheedhrusa-many-as acha Thathashreyskarammatham

Vastu Shasthraa Dhruthe-tasya Na syal-laksanananirnaya:

Thasmath Lokasya Krupaya Saathametha-dhuriryathe

The essence of this elegant shloka is that a well-planned house as per Vastu Shastra will give all pleasures, wealth, intelligent children, peace and happiness, redeem one from debts etc. Negligence to Vastu will result in unnecessary travels, bad name, grief, and disappointments. All houses, villages, towns, and cities should be built conforming to Vastu Shastra. Vastu Shastra, is, therefore ushered in for the betterment and overall welfare of the people in this world.

Vastu was regarded as the science of construction of temples and royal palaces. In Amara Simha’s Amarakosa, a Sanskrit dictionary and epics like Skanda Purana, Agni Purana, Garuda Purana and Vishnu Purana, the principles pertaining to this science had been articulated. Apart from these works, epics like the Bruhatsamhita, Vishnu Dharmottara Purana, Viswakarma Vastu Shastra, Samarangana Sutra Dharana and Aparajitha Prutchcha, have been responsible for Vastu taking shape as a science. The first official treatise on Vastu, the Kasyapa Silpa, has been attributed to Sage Kasyapa. In the treatise Agama Sastra, which explains the science of temples, Vastu is considered as the basis for any type of construction. Excavations at Harappa and Mohenjodaro also reveal the influence of Vastu on the lndus Valley Civilisation.

Vastu is based on the coaction of various forces of nature involving the five elements earth, water, air, fire, and space and strives to maintain equilibrium as these elements influence, guide and change the lifestyles of not only human beings but every living/non-living character on earth.


The principle of Vastu Shastra is concerned with the architecture of building houses, forts, temples, apartments, offices and other buildings. According to Vastu, the world comprises of five basic elements: the panchmahabhoot, whose presence and balance made the life on earth possible. These are:

  • Earth (Prithvi): Earth’s magnetic field and the gravitational force have a considerable effect on everything that is present on earth, living or non-living. According to the scientific theories, the earth is a mammoth magnet, which has acquired magnetism due to magnetic particles embedded in it. It has two poles, North Pole and the South Pole. The southern pole of this magnet is located in the northern hemisphere and the northern pole in the southern hemisphere. Based on the magnetic principles, the distribution of load is done in Vastu Shastra. Therefore, the land, the soil of the plot & selection of site matters and influences the human life in every way. Earth element exerts maximum energy and is the most important element in Vastu.
  • Water (Jal): Water is represented by rain, rivers, and oceans and is present in three forms i.e. Solid, Liquid, and Gas. It is an essential part of all living beings. In a natural cycle, the ice melts with the heat of the sun, forms the liquid, which gets evaporated and forms clouds which then bring water in the form of rains. The habitat and physical life are where water is present. Water matters for all life forms and eco-cultures, which in relation to earth decides the type, form, and pattern of life. Therefore Vastu provides proper directions for the placement of water sources. It is the second foremost element considered in Vastu.
  • Air (Vayu): Air is a very powerful life source. The physical comfort value of a human directly and sensitively dependent on the correct composition, flow, temperature, pressure, and content of the air. In this aspect, air deals with the entire body surface through skin, blood system and through respiration. According to Vastu, windows and doors are provided in the specific direction so as to receive a good amount of air.
  • Fire (Agni): Agni represents the heat and light which account for day and night, seasons and energy, enthusiasm, vigour and passion. Earth derives heat and light from the thermonuclear reaction in the sun. Sun represents light and heat without which the life is difficult. There should be proper ventilation for sunlight being necessary and natural source of light for human beings.
  • Space (Akash): The space provides shelter to all the other elements. It is considered as the primary conductor of all energy sources – physical energies like sound, light and heat, social energies like psychological and emotional energy, and cognitive energies like intellect and intuition. It is also called universe which is known as ‘Brahamand’- the place of god.

Vastu stands in Earth. Earth depends on water which is balanced by Agni. Agni is controlled by air whose movements are only possible in the sky (space). Similarly, the Purusha/living beings are related to these elements. The body (earth) depends on the water whose contents are balanced by the Agni. Agni/heat is controlled by the air. Breathing is possible only if we are having space inside the human body. All these elements are skillfully engineered towards the creation of physically comfortable, emotionally pleasant, intellectually determinant, totally vibrant and blissfully satisfying spaces for human shelter and habitat.

What is Yantra?

Yantra is a Sanskrit word, which literally means loom, instrument or machine. In other words, a Yantra is a geometrical representation of corresponding Mantra, created by interlocking several geometric shapes such as circles, triangles and floral patterns which helps us to resonate positive energy, disperse negative energy and to elevate one’s spirituality. Yantras function as revelatory symbols of cosmic truths. A Yantra and a Mantra, both are instruments used to induce a specific resonance in which the first one is for the visual sense and later for the auditive sense. Each Yantras are often focused on a specific deity, and so by tuning into a Yantra one can tap into corresponding deity or creative force centers in the universe.

Occult Yantras functions as aids to or chief instruments of meditative discipline. They are an mixture of three important principles: the form (Akriti-rupa) principle, the function (Kriya-rupa)  principle and the power (Shakthi-rupa) principle. Akriti-rupa refers to the inner or hidden form of structures which means that everything have a gross structure and a ‘subtle’ inner structure, with a basic causal pattern (the inner form) for the external form. The fundemental shapes coupled in creating a Yantra are psychological representations which correspond to the various phases of inner consciousness along which the control and the expansion of psychic forces are probable. This is why a Yantra is said to embody the Function principle. By constant worship or meditation, the Yantra is said to move beyond ‘form’ and ‘function’ and emerges as a ‘power diagram’ (Sakti-rupa) endowed with a self-generating propensity to transform a spiritual experience into a psychic one. It’s here where the Yantra is said to be ‘revealed’.

All graphic shapes used in a Yantra corresponds to the psychological schema. The outer gates, the lotus petal, the inner geometric shapes and the bindu resembles the gates of one’s consciousness, the spiritual enfoldment, the stages of spiritual ascent and one’s innermost self respectively. They are considered to reveal the inner basis of the forms and shapes flourished in the universe. Just as, whatever the outer structure, all matter is made of an essential basic component, the atom, so each and every aspect of the world can be seen in its structural form like a Yantra.

Most Yantras are surrounded by a square (bhupur) with four gates. These square enact the material world while the gate enacts the access into the Yantra. The different shapes, symbols, numbers inscribed inside are like the parts of a mechanism which guide us gradually towards its center, the Supreme Consciousness. A Yantra is thus an instrument that allows us to make an inner journey to identify the supreme self.

The Various Shapes of a Yantra

A Yantra consist of a geometrical pattern made of several concentric figures such as circles, squares, lotuses, triangles, points etc. Each and every shape of a Yantra emits a very specific, beneficial and harmonious energy pattern that is used in meditation. All these represents the cosmic energies. It is believed that these concentric figures gradually grow away from the center signifying the process of macrocosmic evolution.

  • A Dot or a Bindu, in a Yantra symbolizes the intense concentration. It is the origin of all that exists.
  • The Triangle, pointing down represents the Yoni, the feminine genital organ and the symbol of the supreme source of the Universe, and when the triangle is pointing upwards it signifies intense spiritual aspiration, the sublimation of one’s nature into the most subtle planes and the element of fire (Agni Tattva). The fire is always oriented upwards, thus it is correlated with the upward triangle Shiva Kona. On the other hand, the downward pointing triangle signifies the element of water (Jal Tattva) which always tends to flow and occupy the lowest possible position. This triangle is known as Shakti Kona.
  • The Shatkona (Six pointed star), is the superposition of two triangles, one pointing upwards and the other downwards. It forms a typical combination which is often found in graphical structure of Yantras. This form symbolically represents the union of Purusha and Prakriti or Shiva-Shakti, without which there could be no creation.
  • The Chakra (Circle) stands for rotation which is central to the macrocosmic progression. It also signifies perfection along with the powerful creative void of the Vishudha Chakra. It represents the air element (Vayu Tattva) among the five fundamental elements.
  • The Bhupura (Square) is the exterior limit of the Yantra. It’s a symbolical representation of the element earth (Prithvi Tattva). The starting from the Bindu to the outer Square represents the sense of universal evolution.
  • The Padma (Lotus) symbolizes both purity and variety. It also represents freedom from multiple interference with exterior purity and expresses the absolute force of the supreme self. Every lotus petal represents a distinct aspect.

How are Yantras created?

Yantras are created by the amalgamation of various geometric forms and patterns that teach the mind the power of concentration and focus. The drawing of a Yantra needs accuracy, discipline, concentration, neatness and precision. It should be created by a Sadhak with proper instructions from his Guru and the blessings of Upasana Murthi (the deity who he meditates on). They are created under definite rules and with specific rituals on specific divisions of time in a particular place using certain objects, symbols, sounds, names and forms & energized through a ‘Sidh mantra’ with utmost skill and earnestness, a process which invoke the power of a deity for any of the purposes such as create, uphold, conceal, manifest or destroy.

An elaborate ritual called “Prana Pratishta” is enacted to infuse the deity into the Yantra. Mantras, flowers, pranayama practices, incense and herbs are all offered as if the Yantra were a living being. Energizing the Yantras converts them from mere geometric diagrams to a proper vehicle or recepticle through which the contained invisible forces of energy, are invoked or moved to begin working for the benefit of the individual. Yantras once created and energized, automatically open a ‘channel’ of divine energy through the five elements, magnetizing and drawing through itself high divine vibrations.

How do Yantras work?

Yantra are the best alternative of Mantra to gain positive energy and to eliminate the malefic effects of adversely placed planets. Yantra become a solution for those who are unable to chant Mantras with correct pronunciation. When one focuses on a Yantra, his mind is automatically “tuned in” by resonance into the specific energy form of that Yantra. The process of Resonance is then maintained and amplified.

The Yantras create a peculiar but invisible and intangible quality atmosphere which is filled with positivity and positive vibrations, which keep us in contact with spiritual energies that enhance the soul from within. It increases the intensity of prayers and makes the thoughts more strong and influential. The powers of a Yantra focuses on the resonance of cosmic energies. When one focuses at the centre of a Yantra, his/her mind is pitched into the creative force connected with the Yantra used and the energy flows. The wish and intention of prosperity and affluence along with a Yantra, is bound to yield more fruitful results.

Instructions For Wearing and using Yantra

  • You can wear/install Yantra on any day except Wednesday, Saturday or amavasi, for the first time.
  • It is not mandatory to be vegetarian while using Yantra. You can behave as usual while Yantra is with you. Women can wear in Menstruation periods too.
  • For meditation, hang the Yantra on a wall facing north or East, placing the centre of the Yantra at your eye level.
  • Adopt your favourite posture while meditation. Keep your spine straight while doing the same.
  • Let your breath flow normally, do not force at all.
  • Look into the centre of the Yantra, trying to blink as rarely as possible. Observe the whole Yantra at once keeping your sight right at the centre. No need to look at the particular details of the Yantra.
  • Try to meditate upon the Yantra for atleast 15-30minutes a day, the experience will be indescribable.
  • Once in a year carry this Yantra to temple related with Yantra Devata (If Yantra is related to Vishnu, carry to Vishnu Temple) and get it blessed.
  • Avoid using Yantra while participating funeral. If a death/birth happens in family, purify this yantra by dipping into GangaJal for several hours after finishing death/birth ceremonies.
  • It’s better to keep Yantra (which you are wearing) in Puja room at night and wear it on next day after taking shower.
  • If you had ordered for Yantra to install in Puja room, then place it towards east or west. You should be aware that it is an unique Yantra handmade by Sreejith Nampoothiri and energized with Saparivara Puja. Now-a-days very less people has this sacred knowledge, so most of them provide printed Yantras which has no power at all. So consider it sacred and use properly.
  • You can do archana(offering) with flowers or Agarbathi on installed Yantra. You can light a lamp in front of it or show Agarbathi daily.
  • Meditation looking on the installed Yantra is best method to receive energy created through Puja by Sreejith Nampoothiri.

Defenition of a Hindu

What is the definition of a Hindu :
“Aa sindho: sinduparyantham yasya bhaaratha bhoomikaa maathru bhoo:
pithru bhoo (punya) schaiva sa vai Hindu iti smruthaa:”
whomsoever, is considering the land between the sapta sindu ( Indus valley
river) upto Indian ocean as the motherland/ fatherland and holy land, is
known as Hindu.
This land is known as Hindustanam which is defined as
” Himaalayam samaarabhya yaavath hindu sarovaram tham deva
nirmitham desam hindustaanam prachakshate”
The land created by god himself and which is lying between Himalayas and
Indian ocean is known as Hindustanam .

Unlike other religions, Hindu dharma has many specialties.This is not known as a religion, it is known as the dharma. Either Hindu dharma or sanaathana dharama. Sanathana means according to bhagavath
geetha, which cannot be destroyed by fire, weapons, water, air, and which is
present in all living and non living being. Dharma means, the way of life which
is the ‘total of all aachaaraasas or customs and rituals’. The aachaaraas which
are to be performed by the mother is known as mathru dharma, those of father
is known as pitru dharma. Similarly there are putra dharma ( dharma of son)
aachaarya dharma (dharma of teacher), as a continuation we can say
bhraathru (brother) dharma, bhagini (sister) dharma, poura (citizen) dharma,
raja (king) dharma and so on. All these dharmas have been described in detail
giving the specific importance in the dharma saastra and smruthies. There is
no specific English word for dharma, but it is the sum of the duties +
responsibilities + privileges of that individual. Then what is the sanathana/
Hindu dharma ? It is the total of mathru dharma + pitru dharma + putra
dharma + putree dharma + acharya dharma + poura dharma + …+…etc. Hence
we say Hinduism is not a religion but the way of life. One should always
remember that in each and every aachaaraas / dharma there will be a
component of spirituality in it. Without spirituality, nothing exists in Hindu
dharma. Almost everyone carries a wrong impression that this spirituality is
religion. No ! spirituality is different in Hindu dharma, where the question a
religion does not exist at all, because Hindu dharma was not created by one
individual/prophet/incarnation/…. Hence it is not a religion. Spirituality is a
part of every Hindu custom in the life of a Hindu. What are the rules to be
followed while practicing the Hindu customs and rituals (aachaaraas) ?. This
question has to be scientifically analyzed. Whatever may the aachaaraas we are
practicing in our life, it has been told that saakshaath anubhavairdhrushto na
srutho na guru darsitha lokaanaam upakaaraaya ethath sarvam pradarsitham.
Aachaaraas are to be followed based on their merits available from the self
experience, one need not blindly follow a teacher or someone who gives advise
without reasoning. All these aachaaraas are mentioned for the prosperity of the
human beings and it should be the prime focus for practicing the Hindu
Achaaryaath paadam aadatthe paadam sishya swamedhayaa paadam sa
brahmachaaribhya sesham kaala kramena cha is another important advice
given in smruthies. It means one can get one quarter of the knowledge from the
teacher, one quarter by analyzing oneself, one quarter by discussing with
others and the last quarter one can get during the process of living by the
method addition, deletion, correction and modification of already known
aachaaraas/ new aachaaraas. It is mentioned that we have to take one quarter
from the teacher/ guru. Now, what is the definition of a guru or teacher.
Aachinothi cha saastraarthaan sishyaan saadhayate sudhee swayam aacharti
chaiva sa aacharya iti smruthaa: who is knowing the scientific meaning of the
purpose of the aachaaraas, who can teach the student very systematically and
who is following (all what is taught to the students) in ones own life, that
person is fit to be called as the teacher/guru. Here, one can see the
qualification of a teacher who can define and explain about the aachaaraas.
Can we practice the aachaaraas at all times with the same level of devotion ?
This is a common question asked. The answer is also given in our smruthies.
Swagraame poornam aaachaaraasasm anya graame thadardhakam pattane tu
thath paadam yaatre baalaad aaachaaraasastheth. In one’s own village,
practice all the aachaaraas, in other villages (while travelling or staying)
practice one half of the aachaaraas, in the cities/ towns follow atleast a
minimum of one quarter of them and while traveling, like a child one need not
practice any of the aachaaraas. Should we practice the aachaaraas blindly
saying that those aachaaraas were followed by my father or forefathers.?
Thaathasya koopoyam iti bruvaana kaa purusha kshaarajalam pibathi. Saying
that this well was dug by my father ( and for showing respect to him) one need
not drink the salt water (if it is present) in the well. Aachaaraas need not be the
same in Kerala and Kashmir, similarly for a Hindu the same customs cannot
be practiced in America and Rajastan desert. Hence depending upon the place ,
time, season, age, availability of the materials, financial position of the
individuals, the aachaaraas can be duly modified. The same principles one can
see in bhagavath geetha also. Lord Krishna told Arjuna in the end of
Bhagavath geetha, that vimrusya ethath aseshena yathaa icchasi thathaa
kuru: Hey Arjuna all those whatever I have told you, critically analyze, and the
option for accepting or rejecting is yours. These are the rules one should follow
while analyzing and practicing the aachaaraas in Hindu dharma. There are
many words of guidance given in dharma saastra book. Saastram pramaanam :
scientific results are the first basis, aapta vaakyam pramaanam : guidance to
be taken from the scholars is the (next ) basis, prathyaksham pramaanam : the
direct experience is the next basis, anumaanam pramanam guessing the
consequences/results, if none of the above parameters is available. These are
the steps one should select for the analyses of the aachaaraas. What are the
purposes of practicing the aachaaraas ? It has been described in the smruthies (
which are also known as dharmasaastras) : aachaaraath labhathehyaayu:
aachaaraath dhanamakshayam
achaaraath labhathe suprajaa aachaaro ahanthya lakshanam . By following
the aachaaraas one gets health and longevity, it leads to prosperity, it gives
social relations and friends, and the followers of achaaras are considered as the
embodiment of nobility. Aachaara heenam na punanthu vedaa: The person
who does not have the habit of practicing the good achaaraas, cannot even be
purified by Vedas. What are the achaaraas ? those customs and rituals which
are irrelevant in the modern times are known as anaachaaraas, those which
leads to negatives/ non deleterious results are known as duraachaaraas and
those achaaraas which give very positive and useful results are known are
sadaachaaraas or generally known as aachaaraas. The sadaachaaraas are
followed for any one or more of the following purposes in the Hindu dharma.
The aachaaraas are those give psychological. physiological, family relation and
bondage, social relations and bondage and national integration based positive
results. Focusing on the above five points one can analyze very systematically
all these aachaaraas. Psychologically beneficial aachaaraas/ customs and
rituals: Few examples are selected for explaining these type of aachaaraas The
morning and evening prayer, the positive songs and keerthans, the Vedic
mantras which produce psycho linguistic and neuro linguistic effects, etc are
psychologically useful aachaaraas. They give extremely good response in the
brain cells by way of producing curative hormones. The blessings of the elders
and parents, the encouragement given to the children and also to those who
are desperately struggling in the life, the words of consolation, the blessings
like vijayee bhava, the aachaaraas in social gathering and family functions, etc
give psychologically positive results. ( I wish you will remember that all these
aachaaraas are also spiritually connected, is the Hindu way) More examples:
Reading a puraana gives the messages of ups and downs/ failures and
success/ pains and pleasures in the life. The stories of Sri Rama in Ramayana
and that of Pandavas in Mahabharatha inform us that there are sufferings in
the life and everyone should face them boldly. Reading Bhagavath geetha is for
mentally preparing to face any type of consequences and without failure
practicing the swadharama (ones own duty). Through puranic story telling for
the children, value based messages are given in the form of story capsules to
remain in the memory for many years and to get the reminder whenever the
abnormal pathway is opted to in their life. Visiting elders on festive occasions is
for getting value and experience based advise from their life. Respecting
teachers and elders, is for keeping the values in ones life and in society for the
learned people who continue to guide the society. Auspicious time selection for
visits and performing ceremonies, is to take extra mental precaution to see that
everything is carefully / systematically programmed and planned . Consulting
a good astrologer is to see that things are meticulously planned and the
blessings of the Vedic devathaas are assured for optimism in ones endeavor
(however this should not go to the level of superstition and should be carefully
monitored). Performing pooja is mainly to see that good will come if good is
practiced. And to give the feeling that rest is left to the divine mercy/
blessings. This blessing is directly assured (at least we feel so) by conducting
poojas in presence of family and relatives (hence gives an opportunity for the
family members to come together also). Worshiping the idols/ images having
smiling faces (prasanna vadanam) gives a psychological positive feeling of
confidence ( avoid the worship of weeping/ bleeding/
cruel images as it gives a negative influence in the mind). Chant positive
manthra/ keerthan/ bhajan for positive effect (neurolinguistic and
psycholinguistic) and never chant crying or weeping songs which also influence
the mind negatively Physiologically beneficial customs and rituals. You can
also analyze these customs and rituals yourself on the scientific base. The
soorya namaskaara / sun salutation performed in the morning is a
combination of 7 yogaasaanaas practiced in ten steps, which give smooth
exercise for all the movable skeletal joints in the body and hence this is also
known as ‘ the king of the exercises’. Morning prayer karaagre vasathe lakshmi
karamadhye saraswathi karamoole sthithaa gouri prabhaathe karadarsanam:
Sitting in the same bed where you sleep everyday, without cleaning the
teeth‐face‐body, why this manthra is chanted, because the body was horizontal
for the whole night while sleeping and it is going to become vertical ( suddenly)
when you get up. In the vertical position of the body the force exerted by the
heart for pumping the blood is more, hence the change of position of the body
from horizontal to vertical level should be slow and steady. Hence we are
instructed to sit on the bed for few seconds ( it has been statistically estimated
that 23% of the heart attack deaths take place in the heart patients when they
suddenly get up and stand/walk from the lying position ). Similarly with a
mantra we touch the floor samudra vasane devi parvatha sthana mandale
Vishnu patnee namasthubhyam paada sparsam kshamaswa me. The bio static
electricity in the body gets earthed through the fingers instead of the feet,
reducing the chance of arthritis and many other nervous based disorders.
Before taking the food, few second prayer is a Hindu aachaaraas. during this
prayer time and while looking to the food the flow of saliva in the mouth takes
place and this liquid activates the generation of other digestive enzymes also,
thus activating the process of digestion ( a layer of saliva and digestive enzymes
in the bottom of the stomach before the food comes to the stomach is a
biochemistry). Fasting leads to cleaning of the intestine, certain fasting (partial)
in which change of food is instructed in the custom, which leads to getting
variety of micro nutrients from different types of food sources. Choodaakarna
the ceremony connected with wearing of the ear ring is just like giving the first
vaccination and annapraasana the first food giving ceremony is like the first
inoculation to the baby through the hands of different people (the ear ring in
the former and food in the latter carries little dirt/germs which leads to
augmenting the immunity in the body of the baby). These are only very few
among thousands of aachaaraas practiced by Hindus, for physiological benefit
More examples: Do not keep the direction of the head towards north because
the magnetic meridian of the earth retards the blood flow through brain
capillaries and affect the functioning of brain cells. Avoid taking bed coffee to
prevent the obnoxious decomposed materials generated by microorganism in
the mouth ( in the night ) going to the stomach to avoid the chance of stomach
cancer. Wake up early morning, because the brain is perfectly active during
that time. Take a bath in the morning itself so that all the decomposed
products/ salts/ urea etc present on the surface of the body gets cleaned
which prevents the skin diseases significantly. The cold water/ hot water bath
activates the biological process of the body cells to maintain the body
temperature when cold/ hot water bath is taken. Dhyaana / meditation
activates brain cells. Praanaayaama activates the lungs cells and functioning.
Taking thulasi water/ theertha gives the medicinal property of the plant in it.
Using sandal wood paste in the forehead gives the chance of absorbing the
medicinal components in the chandan through the most sensitive part
of the body. Visiting a temple ( in Hindu worship, the temples are not merely
prayer halls, they are quantum healing centers) gives energy to the body if
pancha suddhee is maintained. Doing pradakshina to aswatha gives an
atmosphere/ air through which traces of ozone produced by the tree goes to
the lungs and purifies the lungs. Attending and participating temple festivals
give the opportunity for leadership qualities, social gathering, entertainment
and hence variety of merits including spiritual benefits. Customs and rituals
beneficial for strengthening the family bondage: When we look for integrated
development of the society, the family relation becomes the first step in the
social life. There are hundreds of aachaaraasasas in the Hindu life which are
exclusively aimed at strengthening the family relations and bondage. Every
spiritual and family based customs are to be practiced by the wife and
husband together, This strengthen the family relationship. The message that
maathru devo bhava, pitru devo bhava : Let the mother and father be divine to
me ( gods to me) convey a strong relation thread between the children and
parents. The death anniversary functions known as sraardha are mainly
performed to give the demonstration of the relationship between the parents
and children. The demonstration from generation after generations. In all the
rituals, the individual is expected to tell the gotra (clan) and sootra (thread of
connection) which again show the connection with the forefathers. During
festivals, the parents were saluted/prostrated as mathru/ pithru namaskaara,
to get the feeling for the children that ( whatever may be their age) their
relationship, with the parents is not merely that of people living together in a
house. This gives the message that in younger days children were looked after
by the parents and in the old age, the parents should be looked after by the
children with due respect and care. Similarly the relationship between the wife
and husband is not merely the relation for sex, but for building a family with
culture and values in the life. Through 16 sacraments known as samskaaraas (
samskaara means refining or purification) the life of the baby is getting
enriched by the values of the life. During the construction of the house the
ground breaking , stone laying , the door fixing and house warming ceremonies
are all connected with the star of birth of the wife, thus giving importance to
the wife in the family. Without the husband or wife, the other (among the
couple) alone cannot perform any of the household achaaras, which again
makes it compulsory to build the strong family bondage. The marriage is
performed by tying the thread‐ putting the garland‐ holding the right palm (
paanigrahana)‐ presentation of the cloths or exchanging the rings‐ and by
sirodhaara, these five rituals in presence of hundreds of invited guests/ and
agni/fire give the feeling of strong wife – husband bondage. It is said that the
marriage is conducted as agni saakshi. Thus one can analyze the customs to
understand the impact of the family relations. More examples: If properly
performed matching a horoscope before marriage gives an opportunity for
understanding the personality of the individuals who are getting married and
suitable corrective measures can be adopted. Inviting relatives and guests for
marriage gives an opportunity to share the joy among relatives and social and
family relations get strengthened. After marriage ceremonies are aimed at
getting a healthy baby and giving the feeling of love and affection among the
couples. The jaatja karma of the baby is performed to record scientifically the
position of the celestial body when the
baby was born. It is the bound privilege of the parents to give the name for
their baby and hence the name of their choice through naamakarana, is given as
a part of the samskaaraas. Dhampati pooja/ couple pooja is performed by
other family members to remind their respect and appreciation on
strengthening the bondage between the couples. Birthday celebrations are
conducted to inform the duty and responsibility of the individuals when they
grow and to remind them that the society and relatives are with them for
undertaking the responsibility. Celebration of the 60th birth anniversary
(shashtipoorti), to remind the time for doing more good for the society using the
experience gained for the last 60 years of life, when the period of rest starts.
Customs and rituals beneficial for the social bondage: Inviting guests for family
functions like birthday, marriage, during the death and after death rituals,
getting together during the festival seasons like
holi‐deepavali‐krishnaashtamai‐ramanavami‐ celebrations etc. temple festivals,
village festivals, are all aimed at building social bondage . Through these social
relation building mechanisms the cultural relationship among Indians was
built up for the last many millennia . Many spiritual and religious activities as
samooha pooja, samooha bhajan, mantra aalapan etc are all done in groups
with the leadership of the common Hindus themselves, not through appointed
priests , which lead to the cultural integration of the social bondage in the
Hindu society. More examples: Family visits during happy and unhappy
occasion by relatives and friends ( even without taking appointments) is to
confirm the family members that during happy and unhappy incidents in ones
life we , the relatives and friends will be with them. Get together during festival
occasions is for strengthening social bondage among the society members.
Kumbha mela, vaisaaki, and many other festival is for sharing the joy and
forgetting the negatives of the past and to build better relations ship among the
members in the society . Group pilgrimage to long distance is to share the joy
and difficulties together in the spiritual way to strengthen social bondage…
Customs and rituals beneficial for national integration: There are many
customs which are followed exclusively for getting the feeling of patriotism
among the Indians. The morning prayer ( praathasmarana) we chant the
names of seven holy rivers from Indian continent … gange cha yamune
chaiva… and seven mountains.. mahendro malaya sahyo… the great women of
India… ahalya droupadi seetha… the great men aswathaama bali vyaaso….
Seven major cities of India ayodhya mathuraa maaya…. and so on. These
stanzas were written three or four thousand years ago. This informs and
reminds us that India was culturally one for the last many thousand years The
pilgrimage to north India by the south Indians and to south India by the north
Indians are fine example of national integration. The customs followed in the
immersion of the ashes (obtained after cremation) in kaasi / varanaasi triveni
sangam by the south Indians and in kanyakumari triveni sangam by the north
Indians lead to this national integration through visits and experiences of
direct contact among south and north Indians ( where the languages/ food/
dressing/ cultural traits etc differ). It is also important to note a very
interesting fact, that for making any curries (food items) in south India , north
Indian spices are required and for north Indian curries, south Indians spices
are inevitable. Thus even in kitchen of Hindu family, the national integration
can be seen. Learning of Sanskrit language, chanting of Vedas and related
literature, the story of Ramayana and Mahabharatha are all finally aims at
integrating the people of India and give the message of unity in diversity . More
examples: A deep analyses of the holy places, rivers, mountains and asramas
given in Ramayana and Mahabharatha when Sri Rama ( in Ramayana) and
Pandavas ( in Mahabharata) visited during vanavaasa , gives familiarity of the
nation through itihasas and puraanaas. Puranic stories do influence the
national integration. Pilgrimage to Asrams, Gangotri, Haridwaar, Kailash,
Kanyakumari, etc integrates the mind of all Indians towards the nation. The
concept of athithi devo bhava to serve the people who visits our home without
taking appointment gives the opportunity to know and help others. During the
age old customs anyone who is on pilgrimage has to depend for the food and
shelter upon the unknown people . People traveling from north to south and
south to north of India, for the pilgrimage could take the shelter in the athithi
devo bhava concept. Bharath maatha ( mother Bharath) concept of the nation
gives the relation among Indians as the children of the country. In
mahasankalpa names of different kshetra in India are given ( as parasurama
kshetra ( Keralam) ‐ Sri Rama kshetra ( Tamil Nadu) ‐ Sreenivasa kshetra (
Andra) ‐ Jagannatha kshetra ( Orrissa) ‐ Bhaskara kshetra ( Karnataka) and so
on, which informs us that we are part of the great nation Bharath. Like this
there are hundreds of the aachaaraas aimed at national integration. Thus the
aachaaraas are directly connected with the day to day life of Hindus. Even the
spiritual rituals also compels us to pray saha naa vavathu, saha now
bhunakthu saha veeryam karavaavahe thejaswinaavadheethamstu maa
vidvisha vahai aano bhadraa . Let us exist together, share the results of the
work together, work together, thorough that path way let us enlighten
ourselves, let us not have hatred towards anyone , let noble thoughts come
from all over the world. Hindus always prayed lokaa: samasthaa: sukhino
bhavanthu . let everyone become happy. Hindus never prayed haindavaa:
samasthaa: sukhino bhavathu Let (only) Hindus become happy. Hindus never
said their pathway is the only correct one for attaining god. They always
allowed other thoughts also to penetrate/integrate into the minds of the people, if
those pathways can also fetch good results. Hindus are the only people who
prayed sarve bhavanthu sukhina: sarve santhu niraamaya sarve bhdraani
pasyanthu maa kaschit dukhabaag bhveth. Let sarve‐ all become happy and
glorious, free from pains and sorrow. Here too Hindus never said only let
Hindus get all the benefit Say that all Indians are proud Hindus whether they
follow lord Siva, Krishna, Jesus Christ or Prophet Mohammed, if their blood is
Hindu blood then they are Hindus. In India there are only two categories of
people who are Hindus and who were Hindus. Those, who are following the
sanathana dharama, even though born and brought up under different culture
anywhere in the world, are also Hindus.


Ayurveda is one of the great gifts of the sages of ancient India to
mankind. It is one of the oldest scientific medical systems in the world,
with a long record of clinical experience. However, it is not only a system
of medicine in the conventional sense of curing disease. It is also a way
of life that teaches us how to maintain and protect health. It shows us
both how to cure disease and how to promote longevity. Ayurveda treats
man as a “whole” – which is a combination of body, mind and soul.
Therefore it is a truly holistic and integral medical system.
The word “Ayu” means all aspects of life from birth to death. The word
“Veda” means knowledge or learning. Hence Ayurveda indicates the
science by which life in its totality is understood. It is a way of life that
describes the diet, medicine and behavior that are beneficial or harmful
for life. The roots of Ayurveda can be traced to the beginning of cosmic
creation. Indian philosophers state that Ayurveda originated from Brahma,
the creator of the universe. Brahma is not a mere individual but the
unmanifest from the Divine Lord, from whom the whole manifest world
comes into being. The desire to maintain fitness, health and longevity is
one of the basic instincts of all creatures. Ayurveda in this respect sets
the pattern for other system of medicine. It is a tradition with an antiquity
comparable to that of life itself.
The magico- religious aspect of medicine in the Vedas was gradually
supplemented by observations based on scientific thinking. Ayurvedic
scholars from subsequent generations gave a sound and logical footing of
philosophy to Ayurveda. The material scattered in the Vedas was
collected, subjected to rigid tests of efficacy and systematically arranged.
Such compilations were called ”Samhitas.” Many of these compilations no
longer exist. Only three authentic works have stood the test of time and
are available today – the Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita and
Ashtanga Hridya Samhita. This great trio – the Brihatrayi as it called –
has enjoyed much popularity and respect for the last two thousand years.
Although these texts have undergone some modification by various
authors in subsequent periods, their present form is at least 1200 years
old. They are all in the Sanskrit language.
The Charaka Samhita is the oldest of the three and was probably
first compiled around 1500 BC. It is considered the prime work on the
basic concepts of Ayurveda. Charaka represents the Atreya School of
physicians. It is a systematic work divided into eight Sthanas or sections,
which are further divided into 120 chapters.
Sushruta represents the Dhanwantri School of surgeons, and is
considered in Ayurveda to be the father of surgery. Even a great American
society of surgeons is named after Sushruta. In the Sushruta Samhita
there are sophisticated descriptions of diseases and surgical instruments.
The next important authority in Ayurveda after Charaka and Sushruta is
Vagbhatta of Sindh, who flourished about the seventh century AD. His
treatise called Ashtanga Hridya.
• Kaya Chikitsa (General medicine)
• Shalya Tantra (Surgery)
• Shalakya Tantra (Diseases of Eye, Ear, Nose & Throat)
• Kaumarbhritya (Children diseases, obstetrics and Gynecology)
• Agada Tantra (Toxicology)
• Bhuta Vidya (Psychiatry)
• Rasayana (Rejuvenation), and
• Vajikarana (Aphrodisiac/sexology)
Ayurveda is the science of positive health and fulfillment in life. The aim
of Ayurveda is threefold:
• To achieve positive health for the individual
• Protection of the masses
• Ultimate liberation
The last goal can be achieved by following regulations of daily conduct
and by following strict seasonal regimens, so that one can be
constantly healthy. Being continuously healthy is comparable to
achieving ultimate liberation, as it involves the eradication of the
factors that bring about suffering.
To understand Ayurveda, it is very essential to know its basic concepts.
These are the backbone of Ayurvedic philosophy. Ayurvedic approach to
health care is based on their applications.
A. Pancha Mahabhuta (The five basic elements)
B. Doshas (Biological elements)
C. Dhatus (Basic tissues)
D. Malas (Waste products)
E. Agni (Biological fire)
1. PANCHA MAHABHUTA (The Five Basic Elements)
Ancient Indian philosophy is of opinion that all materials, living or nonliving
are made of five fundamental elements called Panchamahabhutas,
representing five fundamental categories of matter. These are:
• Akasha (ether)
• Vayu (air)
• Teja (fire/energy)
• Jala (water), and
• Prithvi (earth)
All material on this earth contains Panchamahabhutas in different
2. DOSHA (Three biological humors)
Biological application of Panchamahabhutas reflects in the form of
Tridosha. Here ‘Tri’ means three and Dosha’ represents to humor (bioentity).
Thus the word ‘Tridosha’ denotes to three humors i.e. Vata, Pitta
and Kapha. These are said ‘Dosha’ because these have tendency to get
vitiated and also to vitiate others. This bilateral tendency of Dosha is
cause of health and diseases. State of balance of Dosha represents
health while imbalance to the disease. Every Dosha has definite
place/location and functions in our body. All have their five types
3. Dhatus:
Our body is supported and sustained by seven Dhatus (basic tissues).
Beside this, Dhatus have property to vitiate. Dosha and Dhatus have
relation with each other in health and disease. In pathogenesis of disease
these both play key role.
Following are the seven Dhatus:

i. Rasa (Plasma)
ii. Rakta (Blood)
iii. Mamsa (Muscle)
iv. Meda (Adipose)
v. Asthi (Bone)
vi. Majja (Marrow)
vii. Shukra (Reproductive tissues)
4. Malas –
The word ‘Mala’ means excretal products. Ayurveda has a unique concept
of Malas. Sustenance of Mala in appropriate limits, sustain the life. To
understand it in a better way, take the example of common excreta –
urine. Excess urination may cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.
5. Agni –
Agni is considered as biological fire. In our body entire range of digestive
and metabolic activities are performed by it. Ayurveda considers about
thirteen types of ‘Agnis’.
a. Jatharagni – It performs digestion of food and considered to govern
other ‘Agnis’.
b. Dhatvagni – Every Dhatu has a particular type of Agni, which
is responsible for that for that particular tissue metabolism. These
are seven in number.
c. Bhutagni – Each of the five Mahabhuta (elements) has a specific
Agni, which is responsible for molecular metabolism.
6. Trigunas –
The word literally means three qualities or three properties. These are the
three specific properties of the Mind. They are Satwa, Rajas and Tamas.
Please try to remember any occasion when you enjoyed the food with your
friend. Next day you found that you are not feeling well, as your stomach
is ‘not in order’ but your friend is happy even next day with the taste of
food enjoyed with you last night. You get puzzled, what happens to you?
Why the same food reacted in a different way to you and your friend? In
your daily life there may be so many occasions like this. It is really
strange to observe such things. Yu may wonder that why under similar
conditions, people react in a different way.
Ayurveda has answer of all these curiosities. The concept of Prakriti is
unique and has explanation for this. Every person is born with a definite
genetic constitution, depending upon Doshas, there are three major types
of Prakriti, and these reflect predominance of that particular Dosha. Our
body behaves according to the status of Dosha Prakriti. For example, a
person is born with Vata Prakriti and his or her diet is rich in Vata
promoting substances then he or she is likely to develop a problems like
Constipation etc. while the same diet is consumed by a person of Pitta
constitution that will keep him or her in order.
There are seven possible Prakriti (constitution) types –
a) Vata Prakriti
b) Pitta Prakriti
c) Kapha Prakriti
d) Vata – Pitta Prakriti
e) Vata – Kapha Prakriti
f) Pitta – Kapha Prakriti
g) Tridosha Prakriti
These are only broad categories. But by variation in proportion it may be
of innumerable types. We find that most people around us have a dual
personality. You are required to develop a good concept of Prakriti
analysis, without knowledge of one’s Prakriti, it is practically impossible to
apply Ayurvedic fundamentals in prevention, promotion and cure of
Have a look of some important features of different Prakritis
1. Vata Prakriti – These persons are either short or long but are
most often with a thin body frame. Mostly towards lower side of
weight range, sometimes under weight. Skin is dark, dry with
cracks. Nails are hard and brittle, Appetite is variable, mostly
suffer from constipation. Sleep is light but varies from night to
night. They remember easily and forget easily. Find great
difficulty in developing a routine, but are very active.
2. Pitta prakriti – They are of medium body frame. Skin is usually
delicate, light in color and more prone to sunburn. Sweating is
excessive. Nails are soft, strong and well formed. Endowed with
good appetite and rarely constipated. Have capacity to perform
vigorous exercise. Go to sleep easily but is light. These persons
are more practical in life. Memory is good. More organized in
3. Kapha Prakriti – Body frame is mostly medium to broad. Weight
gain is varying easy. Skin of these people is smooth, thick and
slightly oily. Sweating is moderate. Nails are strong, large and
symmetrical. Appetite is moderate and bowel habit is regular.
They enjoy sleep, which is usually heavy. Appear calm and quiet.
They are of stable nature. From them it takes time to memorize
but once happen, it is forever. Most of the time they are relaxed.
Diseases and their Causes –
The harmony and the balance of the Doshas, Dhatus, Malas and Agni
in the body is the primary condition of the health. The equilibrium is
maintained through a life in conformity with the laws of nature.
A wrong behavior and food habit disturbs the harmony and lead to
The vitiated Doshas are the prime causative factor for a disease.
Because they are the only causative factors for the vitiation
(derangement) of other body elements like Dhatus, Malas, Agni etc.
Both under pathological and healthy conditions, the Doshas behave in
different patterns and elicit various signs and symptoms in regard to
their vitiation, direction of spreading area of localization and
The Doshas can be vitiated mainly by two ways normally and
abnormally. The normal vitiation is produced by the inevitable and
natural factors like seasonal variations, diurnal variations, various
stages of digestion. This type of vitiation is easy to treat and often it
does not require any treatment as the condition subside automatically.
Abnormal vitiation of Doshas is caused by deliberate exposure to
specific etiological factors, both external and internal. That is abuse of
functions of sense organs, wrong bodily habits, suppression of body
urges, ill food habits, avoidance of seasonal and daily regimes.
Incompatible combination of food, lack of body care and preservation
of health, constant exposure of mind to bad feelings like greed,
jealousy, anger etc.
Having a through knowledge of the signs and symptoms produced by
the vitiated Doshas and Dhtus, and through careful examination one
can know causative factors of a disease.
This very much helpful in aspect of treatment. The basic principles of
treatment in Ayurveda is to eliminate the internal disease causing
factors of disease, also to bring back the vitiated Doshas, Dhatus,
Malas and Agni to normal functioning state.
Diagnosis in Ayurveda
There are three main methods mentioned in Ayurveda for diagnosing
the Dosha imbalance and disease process in a person. They are –
1. Darsana Pareeksha – By observing the patient’s physical signs
and symptoms, Example – colour of skin, hair, eyes, behavior,
body condition etc.
2. Prasna Preeksha – By asking minute questions regarding the
imbalance of each Doshas.
3. Sparsana Pareeksha – By touching the patient. The pulse
diagnosis, palpation, percussion and auscultation are included in
this method.
Nadi Pareeksha (Pulse diagnosis) is a very important tool for
diagnosis. The physician feels the radial artery pulsations on the wrist
of the patient and through his experience he can get a clear picture of
the milieu interior.
The treatment in Ayurveda can be classified broadly into two-
1. Shamana Chikitsa (Alleviating Therapy)
2. Sodhana Chikitsa (Purification Therapy)
Samana Chikitsa
This is specially done after the sodhana therapy and in less vitiation.
Herbal medicines are used internally and externally to correct the
derangement of functions of Doshas, Dhatus, Malas and Agni and also to
increase the Immunity. The restoration of normality is brought about
without any elimination.
Sodhana Chikitsa
The main aim of this treatment is to eliminate the internal causative
factors of the disease. A large quantities of toxic bi-products are formed
in the body as a result of continuous metabolic process. All though most
of these toxins are eliminated naturally by the body’s excretory system,
some may get deposited in the various tissues of the body, which ensures
the vitiation of Doshas, Dhatus etc. and then the normal functioning of the
system is impaired. Similarly disease causing toxins accumulate in the
body as a result of various factors like wrong body habits, wrong food
habits, incompatible combination of food items, suppression of the body
urges, emotional imbalance etc. Panchakarma therapeutic procedures are
used to facilitate the elimination of such harmful factors.
Panchakarma is the cornerstone to Ayurvedic management of
disease. Pancha Karma is the process, which gets to the root cause of the
problem and re-establishes the essential balance of ‘Tridosha’ (three
doshas: Vata, Pitta and Kapha) in body. Pancha Karma is not only good
for alleviating disease but is also a useful tool in maintaining excellent
health. Ayurveda advises undergoing Pancha Karma at the seasonal
changes in order to clean the body and improve the digestion and
metabolic processes.
Panchakarma is a Sanskrit word that means “five actions” or “five
treatments”. This science of purifying the body is an ancient branch of
Ayurveda. The Treatment in Ayurveda consists of two main types.
One is Shaman Chikitsa, used to subdue the vitiated Doshas, which may
cause any ailments. It is administered by using various medicinal herbomineral
However, if the Doshas are vitiated beyond a particular level, they give
rise to various toxins, which have a tendency to be accumulated in the
minute channels. These are beyond the level of pacification and hence
need to be eliminating from the body. In such cases, the second type of
treatment, which is Shodhan Chikitsa or cleansing therapy, is indicated.
Since it consists of the five types of main therapies, it is known as the
Panchakarma has been given a special place in all ancient Ayurvedic
texts. Aacharya Charak, the author of the most important ancient text on
internal medicine, has described a wide use of Panchakarma therapy in
almost all major diseases. Two separate sections, Kalpa Sthanam, and
Siddhi Sthanam in Charak Samhita describe in details special decoctions
and other preparations used for Panchakarma therapy.
Panchakarma includes three parts namely:
Poorva Karma (Preparatory Methods), which includes:
• Paachana (Digestion)
• Snehana (Internal and external oleation)
• Swedana (Fomentation)
Pradhan Karma (Main methods), which includes:
• Vamana (Induced vomiting)
• Virechana (Induced purgation)
• Anuvasana (Medicated oil enema)
• Asthapana (Medicated decoction enema)
• Nasya (Drug administration through nose)

The Ashtavakra Gita

The Ashtavakra Gita
Before you start this powerful scripture:
How to understand Ashtavakra’s Gita:
Of all the scriptures, this is one of the most, if not the single most, radical and direct
scripture as it comes as close to inducing immediate truth and enlightenment as one
could possibly get to with words. It is old; yet it remains controversial in that it
defies all practices, religions, spiritual dogmas, scriptures and traditions as being
useless and blinding, and if you read carefully, even condemns the very cause of our
bondage to be those practices and paths.
The Ashtavakra Gita is simple, yet bound to be misunderstood: It is allcomprehensive,
yet it explains to you no structure to follow and no path to go by.
This is utterly naked truth expressed in words as good as you’ll probably ever get it
and as immediate as it is available in any of the scriptures; this Samhita cuts
through all illusion and systems of belief, whether believed to be material, sacred, or
spiritual. Ready to drop all your concepts? Ready to stop clinging to whatever
spiritual teachers have taught you? Are you ready to drop whatever has ever been
taught to you?
Try to read with an open mind: Don’t try to collect knowledge out of this
scripture. You may do that with all other scriptures if you like; you may spoil them to
whatever degree your mind wants you to. But let this scripture be as it is as you
read it with an openness of awareness. Don’t collect knowledge, instead, just listen
and let wisdom understanding dawn on its own. Just listen with an intensely relaxed
consciousness as you read each line carefully and attentively. You can also choose to
say it out loud to yourself slowly as you read it.
Just be open. Don’t try, leave all effort to understand behind and just go with the
flow of the words. Enlightenment or any form of ‘enlightening’ realizations are a
result of letting be, not of strive and effort. So let it be as it is while your eyes, ears
and attention reads through the text; Don’t actually read this scripture, instead; let
it be read.
Introduction: A little background information:
The Ashtavakra Gita, also known as the Ashtavakra Samhita, is a teaching between
the fully realized 12-year old master Ashtavakra and the King of Mithila, known as
Janak who comes to Ashtavakra to beg for his wisdom after having recognized in him
the presence and wisdom of an enlightened one. This scripture comes from Advaita
Ashtavakra means one who is deformed in eight places. This is what his body was
like: deformed in eight places. Said to be so due to a curse uttered by his father
when Ashtavakra was still in the uterus of his mother. Much more is not known about
him, only that this conversation/teaching took place when he was of the age of 12.
The first part of this text comes from Ashtavakra, teaching to Janak. Note
that Janak is one of the most open-minded students Ashtavakra could wish for. He
has fully ripened to understanding the words of Ashtavakra. So while Ashtavakra is
expressing the Ultimate Truth in his words, the spark hits its target and Janak, for
the first time in his live, can fully see, and realizes the same as all the sages of all
times have realized; simply by listening with a completely open attitude. His entire
being was as open and ready to receive as the mouth of whomsoever has not eaten
anything in months.
So then the second part of this scripture comes from Janak, expressing his newfound
enlightenment in similar words as Ashtavakra did. This part basically consists
of some powerful statements about the ultimate reality, which Janak is referring to
as “I”. Note that in fact it is the same truth speaking through both. At first it is
Ashtavakra expressing his wisdom, then Janak expresses his; but both are one and
the same, beyond body and mind. You could say both are Janak, or both are
Ashtavakra his words.
The Ashtavakra Gita:
Chapter #1:
Janak Asked: “Oh Lord, how does one attain to wisdom? How does liberation
happen? And how is non-attachment attained? Please tell me this.”
Ashtavakra replied: “Oh beloved, if you want liberation then renounce the passions
as poison, and take forgiveness, innocence, compassion, contentment and truth as
nectar. To attain liberation, know yourself as the witnessing consciousness of all
If you can separate yourself from your physical body and rest in consciousness, then
this very moment you will be happy, at peace and free of bondage.
You are not a Brahmin or any other caste, you are not in any of the four stages of
life, you are not perceived by the eyes or other senses. Unattached and without
form, You are the witness of the whole universe. Know this and be happy.
Oh expansive one, religion and atheism, happiness and misery – all are of the mind,
they are not for you. You are not the doer nor the enjoyer. You have always been
The Ashtavakra Gita:
Chapter #2:
Ashtavakra said: “You are the one observer of all, and in reality always free. Your
bondage is this: You see the other – not yourself – as the observer.
“I am the doer,” thus has the black serpent of ego bitten you. “I am not the doer,”
drink this divine nectar of trust and be happy.
“I am the one pure awareness,” thus having burned the forest of your ignorance with
this fire of certainty and being beyond sorrow, be happy.
You are that bliss, that ultimate bliss, Within which this imaginary world is projected
like a snake on a rope.* Knowing this, thus wander happily. He who considers
himself free is free, and he who considers himself bound is bound; because in this
world the proverb is true: “As you think, so you are.”
The soul is the witness, all-pervading, perfect, one, free, conscious, free from doing,
absolutely alone, non-attached, desire less, peaceful. Because of illusion, it looks like
the world.
“I am an individually projected life,” drop this illusion and also the feeling of inner
and outer, and awaken in the feeling that you are the unchanging, conscious,
nondual soul.”
The Ashtavakra Gita:
Chapter #3:
Ashtavakra said: “Oh son, long have you been caught in the bondage of perceiving
yourself as the body. Cut this bondage with the sword of knowing: “I am awareness”
and be happy.
You are alone, void of action, self-illuminated and innocent. Your bondage is this:
that you practice samadhi.
You are permeating this universe, you are the thread within it. You are pure
consciousness by nature, do not become small-minded. You are without
expectations, unchanging, self-sufficient, the abode of serenity, of boundless
intelligence, and unperturbed. Hence have faith only in consciousness.
Know that which has form is false, and know the formless as unchangeable and
everlasting. From this true understanding one is not born in the world again. Just as
a mirror exists in the image reflected in it, and also exists apart from the reflection;
God is within and outside this body. Just as the one all-pervading sky is the same
within and outside a pot; the eternal everlasting Brahman is the same in all.”
The Ashtavakra Gita:
Chapter #4:
(Note: From now on, Janak is speaking, as he just realized the infinite just by
listening to Ashtavakra)
Janak said: “Amazing! I am pure, flawless, I am peace, I am awareness, I am
beyond nature. Alas, I have been fooled by illusion all this time!
Just as I all one illumine this body, do I illumine the universe too. Either this whole
universe is mine, or nothing at all.
Amazing! Having renounced the body and the world, now through the skill of your
teaching I see only the divine.
Just as waves, foam and bubbles are not other than water, so this individual soul is
not other than the universal soul.
Just as cloth when analyzed is nothing but thread, this universe when analyzed is
nothing but the soul.
Just as sugar produced from sugarcane juice is wholly pervaded by it, the universe
produced from me is permeated by me through and through.
From the ignorance of the soul this world then appears; from knowing the soul it
does not appear. From the ignorance of the rope a snake appears; from knowing the
rope it does not appear.”
The Ashtavakra Gita:
Chapter #5:
Janak Said: “Light is my self-nature. I am not other than that. When the universe is
illuminated, it is illuminated by my light.
Amazing that through ignorance the imaginary world appears in me, just as silver
appears in mother of pearl, a snake in a rope, or a mirage in the rays of the sun.
The universe which has emanated from me will dissolve into me, just as a pot
dissolves into clay, a wave into water, or a bracelet into gold.
Amazing am I, I bow down to myself. When the whole world shall perish from
Brahma down to the very blade of grass I shall not perish. I am eternal.
Amazing am I, I bow down to myself. Although embodied, I am the nondual. I
neither go anywhere nor come from anywhere; I just exist, I pervade the universe.
Amazing am I, I bow down to myself. None here is as capable as I, who have been
maintaining this universe for an eternity without even touching it with the body.
Amazing am I, I bow down to myself. I have nothing at all, or I have all that can be
encompassed by speech or thought.”

Bhagavad Gita and Management

One of the greatest contributions of India to the world is the Holy Gita which is considered to be one of the first revelations from God. The management lessons in this holy book were brought in to light of the world by divine
Maharshi Mahesh Yogi , Sri Sri Ravi Shankar and Swami Bodhanandji, and the spiritual philosophy by the great Adi Sankaracharya the greatest philosopher of India and proud son of Kerala, and Sri. Srila Prabhupada Swami and humanism by Mata Amritanandamayi Devi and Satya Sai Baba.Maharishi calls the Bhagavad-Gita the essence of Vedic Literature and a complete guide to practical life. It provides “all that is needed to raise the consciousness
of man to the highest possible level.” Maharishi reveals the deep, universal truths of life that speak to the needs and aspirations of everyone. Swami Chinmayanandaji preached and educated the people and Swami Sandeep
Chaitanyaji continuing the mission by keeping this lantern burning always knowing the wishes of the modern generations. Arjuna got mentally depressed when he saw his relatives with whom he has to fight.( Mental health has
become a major international public health concern now). To motivate him the Bhagavad Gita is preached in the battle field Kurukshetra by Lord Krishna to Arjuna as a counseling to do his duty while multitudes of men stood by waiting. It has got all the management tactics to achieve the mental equilibrium and to overcome any crisis situation. The Bhagavad Gita can be experienced as a powerful catalyst for transformation. Bhagavad Gita
means song of the Spirit, song of the Lord. The Holy Gita has become a secret driving force behind the unfoldment of one’s life. In the days of doubt this divine book will support all spiritual searches. This divine book will contribute to self reflection, finer feeling and deepen one’s inner process.
Then life in the world can become a real education dynamic, full and joyful no matter what the circumstance. May the wisdom of loving consciousness ever guide us on our journey? What makes the Holy Gita a practical psychology of transformation is that it offers us the tools to connect with our deepest intangible essence and we must learn to participate in the battle of life with right knowledge?. It shows us the path to handle the situation with an equipoised mind irrespective of what comes our way and reminds us time and again, that what the right action is.
The Holy Gita is the essence of the Vedas, Upanishads. It is a universal scripture applicable to people of all temperaments and for all times. It is a book with sublime thoughts and practical instructions on Yoga, Devotion,
Vedanta and Action. It is profound in thought and sublime in heights of vision. It brings peace and solace to souls that are afflicted by the three fires of mortal existence, namely, afflictions caused by one’s own body
(disease etc), those caused by beings around one (e.g. wild animals, snakes etc.), and those caused by the gods (natural disasters, earth-quakes, floods etc).Mind can be one’s friend or enemy. Mind is the cause for both bondage and liberation. The word mind is derived from man to think and the word man derived from Manu (sanskrit word for man).
“The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone’s heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy.” There is no theory to be internalized and applied in this psychology.Ancient practices spontaneously induce what each person needs as the individual and the universal coincide. The work proceeds through intellectual knowledge of the playing field (jnana yoga), emotional devotion to the ideal (bhakti yoga) and right action that includes both feeling and knowledge(karma yoga). With ongoing purification we approach wisdom. The Bhagavad Gita is a message addressed to each and every human individual to help him or her to solve the vexing problem of overcoming the present and progressing towards a bright future. Within its eighteen chapters is revealed a human drama. This is the experience of everyone in this world, the drama of the ascent of man from a state of utter dejection, sorrow and total breakdown and hopelessness to a state of perfect understanding, clarity, renewed strength and triumph. “Freed from attachment, fear and anger, absorbed in Me, and taking refuge in Me, purified by the penance of knowledge, many have attained union with My
Being.” (Gita 4:10)
Mind is very restless, forceful and strong, O Krishna, it is more difficult to control the mind than to control the wind ~ Arjuna to Sri Krishna
In this modern world the art of Management has become a part and parcel of everyday life, be it at home, in the office or factory and in Government. In all organizations, where a group of human beings assemble for a common
purpose irrespective of caste, creed, and religion, management principles come into play through the management of resources, finance and planning, priorities, policies and practice. Management is a systematic way of
carrying out activities in any field of human effort. Management need to focus more on leadership skills, e.g., establishing vision and goals, communicating the vision and goals, and guiding others to accomplish them.
It also assert that leadership must be more facilitative, participative and empowering in how visions and goals are established and carried out. Some people assert that this really isn’t a change in the management functions,
rather it’s re-emphasizing certain aspects of management. Its task is to make people capable of joint performance, to make their weaknesses irrelevant, says the Management Guru Peter Drucker. It creates harmony in working together – equilibrium in thoughts and actions, goals and achievements, plans and performance, products and markets. It resolves situations of scarcity, be they in the physical, technical or human fields, through maximum utilization with the minimum available processes to achieve the goal.
Lack of management causes disorder, confusion, wastage, delay, destruction and even depression. Managing men, money and materials in the best possible way, according to circumstances and environment, is the most
important and essential factor for a successful management.Management guidelines from the Bhagavad Gita
There is an important distinction between effectiveness and efficiency in managing.
Effectiveness is doing the right things.Efficiency is doing things right. The general principles of effective management can be applied in every field, the differences being more in application than in principle. The
Manager’s functions can be summed up as:
Forming a vision
Planning the strategy to realize the vision.
Cultivating the art of leadership.
Establishing institutional excellence.
Building an innovative organization.
Developing human resources.
Building teams and teamwork.
Delegation, motivation, and communication.
Reviewing performance and taking corrective steps when called for.
Thus, management is a process of aligning people and getting them committed to work for a common goal to the maximum social benefit – in search of excellence. Major functions of a manager are planning, organizing, leading
and coordinating activities — they put different emphasis and suggest different natures of activities in the following four major functions..The critical question in all managers’ minds is how to be effective in their
job. The answer to this fundamental question is found in the Bhagavad Gita, which repeatedly proclaims that “you must try to manage yourself.” The reason is that unless a manager reaches a level of excellence and effectiveness, he or she will be merely a face in the crowd.
Old truths in a new context:
The Bhagavad Gita, written thousands of years ago, enlightens us on all managerial techniques leading us towards a harmonious and blissful state of affairs in place of the conflict, tensions, poor productivity, absence of
motivation and so on, common in most of Indian enterprises today – and probably in enterprises in many other countries.The modern (Western) management concepts of vision, leadership, motivation, excellence in work, achieving goals, giving work meaning, decision making and planning, are all discussed in the Bhagavad Gita. There is one major difference. While Western management thought too often deals with problems at material, external and peripheral levels, the Bhagavad Gita tackles the issues from the grass roots level of human thinking. Once the basic thinking of man is improved, it will automatically enhance the quality of his actions and their results.
The management philosophy emanating from the West is based on the lure of materialism and on a perennial thirst for profit, irrespective of the quality of the means adopted to achieve that goal. This phenomenon has its
source in the abundant wealth of the West and so ‘management by materialism’ has caught the fancy of all the countries the world over, India being no exception to this trend.
My country, India, has been in the forefront in importing these ideas mainly because of its centuries old indoctrination by colonial rulers, which has inculcated in us a feeling that anything Western is good and anything Indian, is inferior. Gita does not prohibit seeking money, power, comforts, health. It advocates active pursuit of one’s goals without getting attached to the process and the results.
The result is that, while huge funds have been invested in building temples of modem management education, no perceptible changes are visible in the improvement of the general quality of life – although the standards of
living of a few has gone up. The same old struggles in almost all sectors of the economy, criminalization of institutions, social violence, exploitation and other vices are seen deep in the body politic.
The source of the problem:
The reasons for this sorry state of affairs are not far to seek. The Western idea of management centers on making the worker (and the manager) more efficient and more productive. Companies offer workers more to work more,
produce more, sell more and to stick to the organization without looking for alternatives. The sole aim of extracting better and more work from the worker is to improve the bottom-line of the enterprise. The worker has
become a hirable commodity, which can be used, replaced and discarded at will. Thus, workers have been reduced to the state of a mercantile product. In such a state, it should come as no surprise to us that workers start using
strikes (gheraos) sit-ins, (dharnas) go-slows, work-to-rule etc. to get maximum benefit for themselves from the organisations. Society-at-large is damaged. Thus we reach a situation in which management and workers become
separate and contradictory entities with conflicting interests. There is no common goal or understanding. This, predictably, leads to suspicion,friction, disillusion and mistrust, with managers and workers at cross
purposes. The absence of human values and erosion of human touch in the organizational structure has resulted in a crisis of confidence.Western management philosophy may have created prosperity – for some
people some of the time at least – but it has failed in the aim of ensuring betterment of individual life and social welfare. It has remained by and large a soulless edifice and an oasis of plenty for a few in the midst of
poor quality of life for many. Hence, there is an urgent need to re-examine prevailing management disciplines – their objectives, scope and content. Management should be redefined to underline the development of the worker as a person, as a human being, and not as a mere wage-earner. With this changed perspective, management can become an instrument in the process of social, and indeed national, development.
Now let us re-examine some of the modern management concepts in the light of the Bhagavad Gita which is a primer of management-by-values.
Utilization of available resources The first lesson of management science is to choose wisely and utilize
scarce resources optimally. During the curtain raiser before the Mahabharata War, Duryodhana chose Sri Krishna’s large army for his help while Arjuna selected Sri Krishna’s wisdom for his support. This episode gives us a clue
as to the nature of the effective manager – the former chose numbers, the latter, wisdom.
Work commitment
A popular verse of the Gita advises “detachment” from the fruits or results of actions performed in the course of one’s duty. Being dedicated work has to mean “working for the sake of work, generating excellence for its own
sake.” If we are always calculating the date of promotion or the rate of commission before putting in our efforts, then such work is not detached. It is not “generating excellence for its own sake” but working only for the
extrinsic reward that may (or may not) result. Working only with an eye to the anticipated benefits, means that the quality of performance of the current job or duty suffers – through mental agitation of anxiety for the future. In fact, the way the world works means that events do not always respond positively to our calculations and hence
expected fruits may not always be forthcoming. So, the Gita tells us not to mortgage present commitment to an uncertain future.Some people might argue that not seeking the business result of work and actions, makes one unaccountable. In fact, the Bhagavad Gita is full of advice on the theory of cause and effect, making the doer responsible for the consequences of his deeds. While advising detachment from the avarice of selfish gains in discharging one’s accepted duty, the Gita does not absolve anybody of the consequences arising from discharge of his or her responsibilities.
Attachment to perishable gives birth to fear, anger, greed, desire, feeling of “mine” and many other negative qualities. Renounce attachment by regarding objects for others and for serving others. Depend only on God (not body, nor intellect), and the dependency on the world will end. Renouncing attachment is the penance of knowledge, which leads to His Being – Truth, Consciousness and Bliss. (Heaved Gita-4.10)
Thus the best means of effective performance management is the work itself. Attaining this state of mind (called “nishkama karma”) is the right attitude to work because it prevents the ego, the mind, from dissipation of attention through speculation on future gains or losses. Motivation self and self-transcendence:
It has been presumed for many years that satisfying lower order needs of workers – adequate food, clothing and shelter, etc. are key factors in motivation. However, it is a common experience that the dissatisfaction of
the clerk and of the Director is identical – only their scales and composition vary.
It should be true that once the lower-order needs are more than satisfied, the Director should have little problem in optimizing his contribution to the organization and society. But more often than not, it does not happen like that. (“The eagle soars high but keeps its eyes firmly fixed on the dead animal below.”) On the contrary, a lowly paid schoolteacher, or a self-employed artisan, may well demonstrate higher levels of self-actualization despite poorer satisfaction of their lower-order needs.
This situation is explained by the theory of self-transcendence propounded in the Gita. Self-transcendence involves renouncing egoism, putting others before oneself, emphasizing team work, dignity, co-operation, harmony and
trust, indeed potentially sacrificing lower needs for higher goals, the opposite of Maslow.”Work must be done with detachment.” It is the ego that spoils work and the ego is the centerpiece of most theories of motivation. We need not merely a theory of motivation but a theory of inspiration.
The Great Indian poet, Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941, known as “Gurudev”) says working for love is freedom in action. A concept which is described as “disinterested work” in the Gita where Sri Krishna says,
“He who shares the wealth generated only after serving the people, through work done as a sacrifice for them, is freed from all sins. On the contrary those who earn wealth only for themselves, eat sins that lead to frustration
and failure.”
Disinterested work finds expression in devotion, surrender and equipoise. The former two are psychological while the third is determination to keep the mind free of the dualistic (usually taken to mean “materialistic”) pulls
of daily experiences. Detached involvement in work is the key to mental equanimity or the state of “nirdwanda.” This attitude leads to a stage where the worker begins to feel the presence of the Supreme Intelligence guiding
the embodied individual intelligence. Such de-personified intelligence is best suited for those who sincerely believe in the supremacy of organizational goals as compared to narrow personal success and achievement.
Work culture An effective work culture is about vigorous and arduous efforts in pursuit
of given or chosen tasks. Sri Krishna elaborates on two types of work culture “daivi sampat” or divine work culture and “asuri sampat” or demonic work culture. Daivi work culture – involves fearlessness, purity, self-control, sacrifice, straightforwardness, self-denial, calmness, absence of fault-finding, absence of greed, gentleness, modesty, absence of envy and pride. Asuri work culture – involves egoism, delusion, personal desires, improper
performance, work not oriented towards service. Mere work ethic is not enough. The hardened criminal exhibits an excellent work ethic. What is needed is a work ethic conditioned by ethics in work.
It is in this light that the counsel, “yogah karmasu kausalam” should be understood. “Kausalam” means skill or technique of work which is an
indispensable component of a work ethic. ” Yogah” is defined in the Gita itself as “samatvam yogah uchyate” meaning an unchanging equipoise of mind
(detachment.) Tilak tells us that acting with an equable mind is Yoga.(Bal Gangadhar Tilak, 1856-1920, the precursor of Gandhiji, hailed by the
people of India as “Lokmanya,” probably the most learned among the country’s political leaders. For a description of the meanings of the word “Yoga”, see
foot of this page.)
By making the equable mind the bed-rock of all actions, the Gita evolved the goal of unification of work ethic with ethics in work, for without ethical
process no mind can attain an equipoise. The guru, Adi Sankara (born circa 800 AD), says that the skill necessary in the performance of one’s duty is
that of maintaining an evenness of mind in face of success and failure.The calm mind in the face of failure will lead to deeper introspection and see
clearly where the process went wrong so that corrective steps could be taken to avoid shortcomings in future.
The principle of reducing our attachment to personal gains from the work done is the Gita’s prescription for attaining equanimity. It has been held
that this principle leads to lack of incentive for effort, striking at the very root of work ethic. To the contrary, concentration on the task for its
own sake leads to the achievement of excellence – and indeed to the true mental happiness of the worker.
Thus, while commonplace theories of motivation may be said to lead us to the bondage or extrinsic rewards, the Gita’s principle leads us to the intrinsic rewards of mental, and indeed
moral, satisfaction.
Work results
The Gita further explains the theory of “detachment” from the extrinsic rewards of work in saying:
If the result of sincere effort is a success, the entire credit should not be appropriated by the worker alone. If the result of sincere effort is a failure, then too the entire
blame does not accrue to the worker. The former attitude mollifies arrogance and conceit while the latter
prevents excessive despondency, de-motivation and self-pity. Thus both these dispositions safeguard the doer against psychological vulnerability, the
cause of the modem managers’ companions of diabetes, high blood pressure and ulcers.
Assimilation of the ideas of the Gita leads us to the wider spectrum of “lokasamgraha” (general welfare) but there is also another dimension to the
work ethic – if the “karmayoga” (service) is blended with “bhaktiyoga” (devotion), then the work itself becomes worship, a “sevayoga” (service for
its own sake.)
Along with bhakti yoga as a means of liberation, the Gita espouses the doctrine of nishkamya karma or pure action untainted by hankering after the
fruits resulting from that action. Modern scientists have now understood the intuitive wisdom of that action in a new light.
Scientists at the US National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, found that laboratory monkeys that started out as procrastinators, became
efficient workers after they received brain injections that suppressed a gene linked to their ability to anticipate a reward. The scientists reported
that the work ethic of rhesus macaques wasn’t all that different from that of many people: “If the reward is not immediate, you procrastinate”, Dr
Richmond told LA Times. (This may sound a peculiarly religious idea but it has a wider application.
It could be taken to mean doing something because it is worthwhile, to serve others, to make the world a better place.)
Manager’s mental health Sound mental health is the very goal of any human activity – more so
management. Sound mental health is that state of mind which can maintain a
calm, positive poise, or regain it when unsettled, in the midst of all the
external vagaries of work life and social existence. Internal constancy and
peace are the pre-requisites for a healthy stress-free mind. At the initial
stages when engaging in a relationship, the mind may wander and go to
different places. But we must have a clear aim, a clear focus, a single
pointed direction. Thereafter the mind will not wander in different places.
The mind will remain on only one.
Some of the impediments to sound mental health are:
Greed – for power, position, prestige and money.
Envy – regarding others’ achievements, success, rewards.
Egotism – about one’s own accomplishments.
Suspicion, anger and frustration.
Anguish through comparisons.
The driving forces in today’s businesses are speed and competition. There is
a distinct danger that these forces cause erosion of the moral fiber, that
in seeking the end, one permits oneself immoral means – tax evasion,
illegitimate financial holdings, being “economical with the truth”,
deliberate oversight in the audit, too-clever financial reporting and so on.
This phenomenon may be called as “yayati syndrome”.
In the book, the Mahabharata, we come across a king by the name of Yayati
who, in order to revel in the endless enjoyment of flesh exchanged his old
age with the youth of his obliging youngest son for a thousand years.
However, he found the pursuit of sensual enjoyments ultimately unsatisfying
and came back to his son pleading him to take back his youth. This “yayati
syndrome” shows the conflict between externally directed acquisitions
(extrinsic motivation) and inner value and conscience (intrinsic
Our mind is like a computer, continuously programmed since our childhood
along with some vasanas from our previous birth. This programming is both
good and bad for ourselves, a healthier programming makes us a productive
and happy individual, while a bad program may turn us into a unproductive.
If we choose to surrender our Mind, Ego and operate from that realm, it is
like asking a person to live with his brain defunct!! It will be a futile
Mental peace can be achieved by effective delegation. Delegation
is when supervisors give responsibility and authority to subordinates to
complete a task, and let the subordinates figure out how the task can be
accomplished. Effective delegation develops people who are ultimately more
fulfilled and productive. Managers become more fulfilled and productive
themselves as they learn to count on their staffs and are freed up to attend
to more strategic issues.
Delegation is often very difficult for new supervisors, particularly if they
have had to scramble to start the organization or start a major new product
or service themselves. Many managers want to remain comfortable, making the
same decisions they have always made. They believe they can do a better job
themselves. They don’t want to risk losing any of their power and stature
(ironically, they do lose these if they don’t learn to delegate
effectively). Often, they don’t want to risk giving authority to
subordinates in case they fail and impair the organization.
This is one reason why such an exercise of surrendering mind, ego etc fails
in the real world. Man is a biological machine, and he cannot operate
without those necessary components of his software.
Management needs those who practice what they preach
“Whatever the excellent and best ones do, the commoners follow,” says Sri
Krishna in the Gita. The visionary leader must be a missionary, extremely
practical, intensively dynamic and capable of translating dreams into
reality. This dynamism and strength of a true leader flows from an inspired
and spontaneous motivation to help others. “I am the strength of those who
are devoid of personal desire and attachment. O Arjuna, I am the legitimate
desire in those, who are not opposed to righteousness,” says Sri Krishna in
the 10th Chapter of the Gita.
The despondency of Arjuna in the first chapter of the Gita is typically
human. Sri Krishna, by sheer power of his inspiring words, changes Arjuna’s
mind from a state of inertia to one of righteous action, from the state of
what the French philosophers call “anomie” or even alienation, to a state of
self-confidence in the ultimate victory of “dharma” (ethical action.)
When Arjuna got over his despondency and stood ready to fight, Sri Krishna
reminded him of the purpose of his new-found spirit of intense action – not
for his own benefit, not for satisfying his own greed and desire, but for
the good of many, with faith in the ultimate victory of ethics over
unethical actions and of truth over untruth.
Sri Krishna’s advice with regard to temporary failures is, “No doer of good
ever ends in misery.” Every action should produce results. Good action
produces good results and evil begets nothing but evil. Therefore, always
act well and be rewarded.
My purport is not to suggest discarding of the Western model of efficiency,
dynamism and striving for excellence but to tune these ideals to India’s
holistic attitude of ” lokasangraha” – for the welfare of many, for the good
of many. There is indeed a moral dimension to business life. What we do in
business is no different, in this regard, to what we do in our personal
lives. The means do not justify the ends. Pursuit of results for their own
sake, is ultimately self-defeating. (“Profit,” said Matsushita-san in
another tradition, “is the reward of correct behavior.” – ed.)
A note on the word “yoga”.
Yoga has two different meanings – a general meaning and a technical meaning.
The general meaning is the joining together or union of any two or more
things. The technical meaning is “a state of stability and peace and the
means or practices which lead to that state.” The Bhagavad Gita uses the
word with both meanings.
Let us go through what scholars say about the Holy Bhagavad Gita.
“No work in all Indian literature is more quoted, because none is better
loved, in the West, than the Bhagavad-gita. Translation of such a work
demands not only knowledge of Sanskrit, but an inward sympathy with the
theme and a verbal artistry. For the poem is a symphony in which God is seen
in all things. The Swami does a real service for students by investing
the beloved Indian epic with fresh meaning. Whatever our outlook may be, we
should all be grateful for the labor that has lead to this illuminating
Dr. Geddes MacGregor, Emeritus Distinguished Professor of Philosophy
University of Southern California
“The Gita can be seen as the main literary support for the great religious
civilization of India, the oldest surviving culture in the world. The
present translation and commentary is another manifestation of the permanent
living importance of the Gita.”
Thomas Merton, Theologian
“I am most impressed with A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada’s scholarly
and authoritative edition of Bhagavad-gita. It is a most valuable work for
the scholar as well as the layman and is of great utility as a reference
book as well as a textbook. I promptly recommend this edition to my
students. It is a beautifully done book.”
Dr. Samuel D. Atkins Professor of Sanskrit, Princeton University
“As a successor in direct line from Caitanya, the author of Bhagavad-gita As
It is entitled, according to Indian custom, to the majestic title of His
Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. The great interest that
his reading of the Bhagavad-gita holds for us is that it offers us an
authorized interpretation according to the principles of the Caitanya
Olivier Lacombe Professor of Sanskrit and Indology, Sorbonne University,
“I have had the opportunity of examining several volumes published by the
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust and have found them to be of excellent quality and
of great value for use in college classes on Indian religions. This is
particularly true of the BBT edition and translation of the Bhagavad-gita.”
Dr. Frederick B. Underwood Professor of Religion, Columbia University
“If truth is what works, as Pierce and the pragmatists insist, there must be
a kind of truth in the Bhagavad-Gita As It Is, since those who follow its
teachings display a joyous serenity usually missing in the bleak and
strident lives of contemporary people.”
Dr. Elwin H. Powell Professor of Sociology State University of New York,
“There is little question that this edition is one of the best books
available on the Gita and devotion. Prabhupada’s translation is an ideal
blend of literal accuracy and religious insight.”
Dr. Thomas J. Hopkins Professor of Religion, Franklin and Marshall College
“The Bhagavad-gita, one of the great spiritual texts, is not as yet a common
part of our cultural milieu. This is probably less because it is alien per
se than because we have lacked just the kind of close interpretative
commentary upon it that Swami Bhaktivedanta has here provided, a commentary
written from not only a scholar’s but a practitioner’s, a dedicated lifelong
devotee’s point of view.”
Denise Levertov, Poet
“The increasing numbers of Western readers interested in classical Vedic
thought have been done a service by Swami Bhaktivedanta. By bringing us a
new and living interpretation of a text already known to many, he has
increased our understanding manyfold.”
Dr. Edward C Dimock, Jr. Department of South Asian Languages and
Civilization University of Chicago
“The scholarly world is again indebted to A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupada. Although Bhagavad-gita has been translated many times,
Prabhupada adds a translation of singular importance with his commentary.”
Dr. J. Stillson Judah, Professor of the History of Religions and Director of
Libraries Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California
“Srila Prabhupada’s edition thus fills a sensitive gap in France, where many
hope to become familiar with traditional Indian thought, beyond the
commercial East-West hodgepodge that has arisen since the time Europeans
first penetrated India. “Whether the reader be an adept of Indian
spiritualism or not, a reading of the Bhagavad-gita As It Is will be
extremely profitable. For many this will be the first contact with the true
India, the ancient India, the eternal India.”
Francois Chenique, Professor of Religious Sciences Institute of Political
Studies, Paris, France
“It was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large,
serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age
and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which
exercise us”
Emerson’s reaction to the Gita
“As a native of India now living in the West, it has given me much grief to
see so many of my fellow countrymen coming to the West in the role of gurus
and spiritual leaders. For this reason, I am very excited to see the
publication of Bhagavad-gita As It Is by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupada. It will help to stop the terrible cheating of false and
unauthorized ‘gurus’ and ‘yogis’ and will give an opportunity to all people
to understand the actual meaning of Oriental culture.”
Dr. Kailash Vajpeye, Director of Indian Studies Center for Oriental Studies,
The University of Mexico
“The Gita is one of the clearest and most comprehensive one, of the
summaries and systematic spiritual statements of the perennial philosophy
ever to have been done”
__________________________________________Aldous Huxley
“It is a deeply felt, powerfully conceived and beautifully explained work. I
don’t know whether to praise more this translation of the Bhagavad-gita, its
daring method of explanation, or the endless fertility of its ideas. I have
never seen any other work on the Gita with such an important voice and
style. . . . It will occupy a significant place in the intellectual and
ethical life of modern man for a long time to come.”
Dr. Shaligram Shukla Professor of Linguistics, Georgetown University
“I can say that in the Bhagavad-gita As It Is I have found explanations and
answers to questions I had always posed regarding the interpretations of
this sacred work, whose spiritual discipline I greatly admire. If the
asceticism and ideal of the apostles which form the message of the
Bhagavad-Gita As It Is were more widespread and more respected, the world in
which we live would be transformed into a better, more fraternal place.”
Dr. Paul Lesourd, Author Professeur Honoraire, Catholic University of Paris
“When I read the Bhagavad-Gita and reflect about how God created this
universe everything else seems so superfluous.”
Albert Einstein
“When doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and I see
not one ray of hope on the horizon, I turn to Bhagavad-Gita and find a verse
to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming
sorrow. Those who meditate on the Gita will derive fresh joy and new
meanings from it every day.”
Mahatma Gandhi
“In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmoganal
philosophy of the Bhagavad-Gita, in comparison with which our modern world
and its literature seem puny and trivial.”
Henry David Thoreau
“The Bhagavad-Gita has a profound influence on the spirit of mankind by its
devotion to God which is manifested by actions.”
Dr. Albert Schweitzer
“The Bhagavad-Gita is a true scripture of the human race a living creation
rather than a book, with a new message for every age and a new meaning for
every civilization.”
Sri Aurobindo
“The idea that man is like unto an inverted tree seems to have been current
in by gone ages. The link with Vedic conceptions is provided by Plato in his
Timaeus in which it states ‘behold we are not an earthly but a heavenly
plant.’ This correlation can be discerned by what Krishna expresses in
chapter 15 of Bhagavad-Gita.”
Carl Jung
“The Bhagavad-Gita deals essentially with the spiritual foundation of human
existence. It is a call of action to meet the obligations and duties of
life; yet keeping in view the spiritual nature and grander purpose of the
Prime Minister Nehru
“The marvel of the Bhagavad-Gita is its truly beautiful revelation of life’s
wisdom which enables philosophy to blossom into religion.”
Herman Hesse
“I owed a magnificent day to the Bhagavad-gita. It was the first of books;
it was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large,
serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age
and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which
exercise us.”
Ralph Waldo Emerson
“In order to approach a creation as sublime as the Bhagavad-Gita with full
understanding it is necessary to attune our soul to it.”
Rudolph Steiner
“From a clear knowledge of the Bhagavad-Gita all the goals of human
existence become fulfilled. Bhagavad-Gita is the manifest quintessence of
all the teachings of the Vedic scriptures.”
Adi Shankara
“The Bhagavad-Gita is the most systematic statement of spiritual evolution
of endowing value to mankind. It is one of the most clear and comprehensive
summaries of perennial philosophy ever revealed; hence its enduring value is
subject not only to India but to all of humanity.”
Aldous Huxley
“The Bhagavad-Gita was spoken by Lord Krishna to reveal the science of
devotion to God which is the essence of all spiritual knowledge. The Supreme
Lord Krishna’s primary purpose for descending and incarnating is relieve the
world of any demoniac and negative, undesirable influences that are opposed
to spiritual development, yet simultaneously it is His incomparable
intention to be perpetually within reach of all humanity.”
The Bhagavad-Gita is not seperate from the Vaishnava philosophy and the
Srimad Bhagavatam fully reveals the true import of this doctrine which is
transmigation of the soul. On perusal of the first chapter of Bhagavad-Gita
one may think that they are advised to engage in warfare. When the second
chapter has been read it can be clearly understood that knowledge and the
soul is the ultimate goal to be attained. On studying the third chapter it
is apparent that acts of righteousness are also of high priority. If we
continue and patiently take the time to complete the Bhagavad-Gita and try
to ascertain the truth of its closing chapter we can see that the ultimate
conclusion is to relinquish all the conceptualized ideas of religion which
we possess and fully surrender directly unto the Supreme Lord.
Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati
“The Mahabharata has all the essential ingredients necessary to evolve and
protect humanity and that within it the Bhagavad-Gita is the epitome of the
Mahabharata just as ghee is the essence of milk and pollen is the essence of
Yoga has two different meanings – a general meaning and a technical meaning.
The general meaning is the joining together or union of any two or more
things. The technical meaning is “a state of stability and peace and the
means or practices which lead to that state.” The Bhagavad Gita uses the
word with both meanings. Lord Krishna is real Yogi who can maintain a
peaceful mind in the midst of any crisis.”
Mata Amritanandamayi Devi.
Karma, Bhakti, and Jnana are but three paths to this end. And common to all
the three is renunciation. Renounce the desires, even of going to heaven,
for every desire related with body and mind creates bondage. Our focus of
action is neither to save the humanity nor to engage in social reforms, not
to seek personal gains, but to realize the indwelling Self itself.
Swami Vivekananda (England, London; 1895-96)
“Science describes the structures and processess; philosophy attempts at
their explaination.—– When such a perfect combination of both science and
philosophy is sung to perfection that Krishna was, we have in this piece of
work an appeal both to the head annd heart.
” ____________Swamy Chinmayanand on Gita
I seek that Divine Knowledge by knowing which nothing remains to be known!’
For such a person knowledge and ignorance has only one meaning: Have you
knowledge of God? If yes, you a Jnani! If not, you are ignorant.As said in
the Gita, chapter XIII/11, knowledge of Self, observing everywhere the
object of true Knowledge i.e. God, all this is declared to be true Knowledge
(wisdom); what is contrary to this is ignorance.”
Sri Ramakrishna
Maharishi calls the Bhagavad-Gita the essence of Vedic Literature and a
complete guide to practical life. It provides “all that is needed to raise
the consciousness of man to the highest possible level.” Maharishi reveals
the deep, universal truths of life that speak to the needs and aspirations
of everyone.
Maharshi Mahesh Yogi
The Gita was preached as a preparatory lesson for living worldly life with
an eye to Release, Nirvana. My last prayer to everyone, therefore, is that
one should not fail to thoroughly understand this ancient science of worldly
life as early as possible in one’s life.
— Lokmanya Tilak
I believe that in all the living languages of the world, there is no book so
full of true knowledge, and yet so handy. It teaches self-control,
austerity, non-violence, compassion, obedience to the call of duty for the
sake of duty, and putting up a fight against unrighteousness (Adharma). To
my knowledge, there is no book in the whole range of the world’s literature
so high above as the Bhagavad-Gita, which is the treasure-house of Dharma
nor only for the Hindus but foe all mankind. — M. M. Malaviya
Let us go through what scholars say about ancient India
“India was the mother of our race and Sanskrit the mother of Europe’s
languages. She was the mother of our philosophy, mother through the Arabs,
of much of our mathematics, mother through Buddha, of the ideals embodied in
Christianity, mother through village communities of self-government and
democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all.”
– Will Durant
“If there is one place on the face of this Earth “where all the dreams of
living men have found a home “from the very earliest days when Man began the
dream of existence, it is India.”
– Romain Rolland – French Philosopher 1886-1944
It is opposed to their (Hindus) foreign origin, that neither in the Code (of
Manu) nor, I believe, in the Vedas, nor in any book that is certainly older
than the code, is there any allusion to a prior residence or to a knowledge
of more than the name of any country out of India. Even mythology goes no
further than the Himalayan chain, in which is fixed the habitation of the
gods… .To say that it spread from a central point is an unwarranted
assumption, and even to analogy; for, emigration and civilization have not
spread in a circle, but from east to west. Where, also, could the central
point be, from which a language could spread over India, Greece, and Italy
and yet leave Chaldea, Syria and Arabia untouched? There is no reason
whatever for thinking that the Hindus ever inhabited any country but their
present one, and as little for denying that they may have done so before the
earliest trace of their records or tradition.
– 1841 M.S. Elphinstone, the first governor of the Bombay Presidency

Yanthro Niyanthruka

Dr.P.V. Viswanathan Nampoothiri
Reader(Dept. of Sanskrit)
Baselios College,Kottayam

All sorts of knowledge of India have their roots in Vedas. Rigveda imparts basic knowledge of everything in the universe. Yajurveda transforms this knowledge to its respective practical form ( work or karma). Samaveda converts this karma to the level of ecstacy. It is undoubtful that work/ karma supported by proper knowledge leads man to perfection. All the living beings including human beings, engage themselves in works from birth to death. When and only when this works (karmas) become pure and dedicated to the Almighty, the goal of moksha is achieved. Yajurveda differentiate karmas into three: 1. Nithya Karma 2. Naimithika karma and 3. Kamya Karma When all these three types of karmas are done with purity of mind and due dedication, life becomes sacred. Thanthra vidya is an inevitable part of Karmayoga. Here, man with due presence of mind leads spiritual life with the help of magic spells and symbolic forms of the almighty. Magic spells (manthras) have two functions 1. Mananam and 2. Thrananam Mananam (Repeat manthras orally) One who does mananam properly gets protection from harms Thrananam. Yanthras give this type of protection ‘Manoradha kharanyathra Niyanthryenthe thapodhana Kamakrodhadi doshanva Deergha dukha niyanthranath This is the definition given for yanthra in the book ‘Sharadathilakam’ In the word ‘Yanthra’, the sound ‘ya’ represents Yamanam (control) and ‘nthra’ represents Thrananam (protection). From this it is clear that ‘yanthra’ performs two types of functions. It controls the mental activities of a person. It also gives him protection from all sorts of evil effects. Yanthradharma is very much same to ‘Easwaradharma’ or ‘Vigrahadharma’. In Saradathilakam the target of yanthra is described in the following verse. Vigraho havisham bhoga Iswaryam cha prasannatha Phaladana meethyed panchakam vigrahabhikam Accept haviss (food offerings) give wealth and prosperity and give result pleasingly. These the panchakas of vigrahaphalam (Function of Idol) Yanthras also can be considered as vigrahas or Idols. They can be regarded as vessels storing divine power. Yanthra controls mind and deity- this is Yanthraphalam (function of yanthra). Yanthra vidya is a part of Thanthra vidya, a derivation of karmapadhathi originated from the science of meemamsa. Yanthra vidya is based on a particular god concept called ‘Apoorvam’, which says gods shower blessings to those perform ritualistic sacrifice and dedicated offerings. Men offer poojas to gods with naturally available things. Gods in turn grace men with plenty of wealth and physical comforts. We can observe a miniature of this god concept in Yanthra vidya. Among the various yanthras, ‘Sreechakram’ is the most important one. Varying Saktheya powers are unitedly brought in to a chakra (circular carving) and worshipped. Powerful presence of Devi is obvious at each corner of Sreechakra. Presence of lalitha Parameswari, goddess showering all prosperities, make Sreechakra more powerful and effective. Sudarshana chakra manifests the divine power of Lord Vishnu. Yanthras belong to various classes in concern with the deity. There are Saktheya Yanthras like Vishnu yanthra, Shiva yanthra, Ganapathy yanthra, Sree yanthra, Thara Yanthra, Bala Yanthra and Aswarooda yanthra, Mruthyunjaya and Aghora belong to Shaiva class. Santhana gopala, Narasimha are Vaishnava Yanthras, Vasheekarana, Marana (death) yanthras are also popular. Yanthras inscribed on copper, silver or golden sheets, offered with magic spells of concerned deity and wearing or installing in the proper way, undoubtedly bring great results. Yanthras materialise humanly desire and bring ultimate ‘moksha’ to the devotee. All the hundred verses ‘Soundarya Lehari’ represent hundred yanthras. In the explanatory notes for ‘Soundarya Lahari’ by Kantiyoor Mahadev Sasthri, there are descriptions of all such yanthras and way of wearing them in detail. Yanthras are much utilized in Kerala as a part of Manthravada. They are also worn by devotees for the easy recovery from deadly deceases. Yanthras have undoubtedly the capability to control mind. For a pious person, wearing appropriate yanthra, offering worship with due dedication and leading a sacred life, it is possible to attain both physical and spiritual prosperity. Ohm Shanthi : Shanthi : Shanthi :

Yanthro Sankalpa

Satheeshan Bhattathiri M
(Ezhumtholil Madam, Cheriyanadu, Chengannur)

Yanthra which is the contribution of Arsha Culture undoubtly benefits man. Yanthra is referred to as ‘Chakra’ in Thanthrik language. Description of chakra is ‘ chakramanath ithi chakra’ (that which moves always) The whole power is concentrated at a certain centre and is then distributed in fixed proportion in ‘Savyapasamya’ way. This is the mode of yanthra motion. Yanthras are represented in scientifically drawn geometric lines. Actually each line denoted continuous part of moving corpuscles through which power can be absorbed or radiated.
Yanthras are pictorial forms drawn suitably combining Bhoopuram or Chathurasram, Circles, Veethikal, Padmas or Dalas, Dalakesaras, angles, Konakesarams, Central point, Karnika and alphabets. Manthra, Yanthra and Thanthra are the three boons of Bharathamba. All there three schemes of worship are rooted in the very being (Chithi) of deities. ‘Para’ form (abstract form) is represented in ‘manthras’. Micro (Sookshmam) and Macro (Sthoolam) forms are manifested in Thanthras and Yanthras respectively.
Manthras are considered to be fesstatic pulsations of ‘Shabda brahma’ which is created from ‘Shiva thandava’. According to the great saying ‘Mananath thrayathe ithi manthra’, manthra protects him who cites it with due observations. The term manthra is derived from the verb root ‘mana’ which is attributed to knowledge. Knowledge and ignorance are regarded as mental states. ‘Enathwa’ and ‘Ekathwa’ are the qualities of mind. As jeevathma and paramathma are related mind and intelligence are mutually related closely. According to the principles of Ayurveda mind is nothing but a form of matter. Beejamanthras are transformed pulsations of ‘Kundalini Power’ which has been awakened by constant and studious efforts. They are ‘parabeeja’. The remaining ones are ‘pashyathi’, ‘madhyama’ and ‘ vaikhari’ ofcourse parabeejas are of foremost importance. Later limitations of human imagination to chant manthras with accuracy led to the evolution of a great branch of spiritual science- Thanthra.
Scientists express various views on the evolution of ‘Thanthra sasthra’. As this science relates to human body, it is said the word ‘Thanthra’ derived from ‘thanu’ which means human body. ‘ thanunath thrayathe nithyam thanthramithyabhidheyathe’- thus is saying. Pancha makarapoojas get much importance in Thanthra sasthra. Bhakti, Yagam, Yogam and discrimination owing to caste and religion have no role to play in this path. Thanthra sasthra wants to realise universal forces in one’s own soul, to get deride of the tangles of world and to become on with the deity. ‘Kaulam’ is an important and secret way of ‘thanthra’. Universe itself can be regarded as the harmonious union of knowledge (njanam), he who as acquires knowledge (njathru) and subject that is to be known (njeyam). This samastiti (combined unity) is included in ‘Thripura’ concept. In the level of ectacy called ‘Chithi’ these ‘ thripuras’ are considered as the components of the same level of consciousness. So they are referred to as ‘Kulam’. It was from this ‘Kulam’ that the term ‘kaulam’ took its derivation. Kaulamarga advances in two channels namely Vamacharam and Dakshinacharam. In vamachara ‘Shatkarma’s (6 fold activities)- Santhi, Vashyam, Akarshanam, Sthambhanam, Uchadanam and maaranam – came into existence. These are the techniques employed in’ manthravada’. Many a practical activities are included manthravada to created both appreciable and adverse effects in people concerned. As Baahyadravyas (external matters) are utilized in these activities on a large scale, these poojas are otherwise called Baahyapoojas. In ‘Dakshinacharam’, operation is performed at the mental level and so the activities in this way are called ‘Samayacharanam’.
Worship of yanthra came into being in the Tibetan region together with the evolution of ‘Thanthra sasthra’. It was then spread to India. Thanthric Acharyas of India made attempts to make this branch more systematic and scientific. Even before the establishment paintings and drawing arts, yanthra worship, marked its presence in India both are related. man became familiar with the geometry of yanthras even before he was in spread by the aesthetic imagination of paintings. Yanthras or chakras are real wonders in the world of mathematics. Alexi Pavlovich Kulaichev, Russian scientist and John woodruf, Thanthrik scholar described with admiration the importance and power of yanthras in their books. They also exclaimed on the scientific base mathematical value of yanthras.
Preparation of yanthra is based on Baahya pooja system. Yanthra is drawn on flat background . Bhoorjapathra, palm leaf, betel leaf or panchaloha is selected for the purpose. Yanthras vary widely in accordance with the nature and characteristics of deity, magic spells used for each deity and the purpose for which the yanthra prepared. Lines and angles in an yanthra may not exactly agree with the concepts of geometry. Surface on which yanthra is drawn is considered to be prapancha (universe) or Kshetra. At the centre Karnika is drawn which is supposed to be source of origin of life. Centre point of karnika, angles, dalas, circles, bhoopuras are drawn then. Karnika (Centre point) is interpreted in different ways- Ananda maya kosham, Akasathmakam, Bimbam, Creation, life etc. Likerise anles (Thrikona, Shatkon etc) are supposed as sphere of intellect (vinjnanamaya kosham) atmosphere inner sphere, stale of being and life. Dalas or padmas are interpreted as ‘manomayakosham’. ‘Thejomandalam’, madhyahara, smhara and intellect. Circles (Vritham) represent ‘Pranamayakosham’. water, Bahirhara disappearance (Thirodhanam) and proudness ( Ahankarathmakam) Bhoopuram is explained as Annamaya kosham, Prithyathmakam (earth) Praakaram, blessings and mind. Thus a lofty yanthra is backed by very great philosophic principles. In short a yanthra is the true representation of the very universe itself with all its movable and immovable things within. According to sasthras, universe, kshetra and human body. All the three are fundamentally one and the same. If a human body is flattened on a flat surface hitting from the top we get a yanthra. Everything in a yanthra can be found in a human body. Every thing in a human body can be seen in a kshetra. Everything in a great realisation and it leads to the truth that yanthra is universe itself.
Based on the purpose, yanthras drawn Beejamanthras inscribed handed over to the benefactor to wear on his body after making it divine with proper poojas and observations. By wearing the yanthra,benefactor undergoes appreciable changes and finally he achieves the goal. It is not compulsory to wear the yanthra on body. To keep the yanthra in a sacred place and perform daily sadhana. This is enough to bring in the results.
So powerful and unique is an yanthra try to experiences its magic powers in your life. Further i do pray to the almighty to shower blessings and appreciable experiences in your life following ‘yanthra ‘ path.

Shadadhara Pradishta

Brahmasree M.N.Sreejith Nampoothiri
(Managing Trustee & Chief Priest, Astro Tantrik Research Centre)

Shadadhara pradishta –the six stages involved in the consecration of an idol in the temples of Kerala

“Kshathathu thrayethe ithi kshethra:” these significant words of a Puranic Rishi mean that “what saves a man from a ruined state is the holy temple, which contains the presence of God.” The life-force (chaitanya) of God resides in the temples and it brings forth the welfare of common man. Temples are the houses of worship, where man can feel the divine presence of God. Temples are mechanical institutions built by ancient pundits (masters) for the blessing of those who are unaware of the Tantric and Vedic rules. The omnipotent presence of God dwells in the temples. The holy presence of God flows into the minds of the devotees through temples. It’s a difficult task for common folk to create an image of a formless god in their minds. In order to rectify this problem the Puranic Rishis have endorsed form and shape to their demigods. Temples are constructed with the idols and statues of gods and goddesses to create a concept and image of god in the minds of the people. According to Indian doctrinal theory, the power of god dazzles in five forms, i.e. Nobility, Structure, Strength, and Supreme Soul and Worship. Out of these, nobility, structure, strength and supreme soul are the majestic forms of god which cannot be relished by normal human beings. But when the idols of the demigods were consecrated in the temples, it became easy for the common folk to feel the presence of God.
Nature is a congregation of millions and millions of heavenly bodies and living organisms. The human body is a short replica of nature. A temple symbolizes the totality of human body. “Idham shareeram kaundheya kshethramithyabhidhiyathe” is a verse from Bhagavad-Gita which conveys the same meaning. A temple is essentially a representation of human body itself. A temple made of stone and wood, is a representation of human body. “Deho devalaya : proktho jeevo deva sadashiva” is a famous `kularnava’ Tantric verse which proves the fact that human body is a temple which contains the presence of Lord Shiva i.e. the temple is a place where the life-force of God resides.
The human body can be broadly classified into two. One kind of body is visible to the naked eye (sthulasharira) and the second kind of body is not visible to the naked eye since it deals with the internal organs of the human body (sukshmasharira). Sthulasharira includes our legs, hands, head, and is visible to our naked eyes. When we take into consideration the parts of the human body from the hip to the head we can make out that the sukshmasharira is located in the vital nerve of the human system i.e. towards the middle of the backbone of the human body. The sukshmasharira consists of six chakras. From the bottom to the top, they are Muladhara (one of the prime centres situated between the anus and the genitals), Swadhinishtana, Manipuraka, Anahatham, Vishudhi, Aajna. Sahasrarapadma (a lotus with thousand petals) which is located in the forehead of human body is an abode of Lord Shiva. Goddess Parvathi (Tripura Sundari Kundalini) resides in the muladhara chakra in the form of a serpent in three and a half turns.
The Yogashastra instructs that one can attain `Moksha’ or Salvation only when the spirit of the Goddess Parvathi is raised from the bottom of the body to the top (the head) by constant meditation and chanting of holy rites, where the fusion or merging of the masculine (Lord Shiva) and feminine (Goddess Parvathi) powers takes place. Thus human body can be said to be the union of Sthulasharira and Sukhshmasharira. The concepts of Sthulasharira and Sukhshmasharira are used in the construction of temples.
The exploration of the order of construction of the temples may help one in arriving at certain inferences. The major parts of the temple like `Prakara’ (outer wall), `Bahyahaara’ or `Sheevelippura’, ‘Madhyahara’ (the middle room of the temple where the holy lamp is lighted), `Anthahara’ (the room for offering sacrifices), and `Antharmandala’ are the five ramparts (prakaras) of the temple which depict the Sthulasharira of the deity. The sanctum, the idol consecrated in the temple and the ‘Shadadhara Prathishta’ placed beneath the idol symbolizes the Sukhshmasharira of the deity. The essential and the amazing part of the temple is the idol of the deity which symbolize the ‘Parabrahmachaitanya’ (the Supreme Soul) which resides in the body of every human being.
The external ramparts (bahya prakara) of the temple represent the Sthulasharira of the deity and the consecrated idol in the sanctum (Sreekovil) of the temple depicts the Sukshmasharira of the deity. Beyond the external splendour and glory, an idol erected in the sanctum of the temple has an internal significance, especially the Shadadhara prathishta. The stone-seat designed for erecting this idol is fixed in the sanctum with a gum called ‘Ashtabandha’ (made of eight ingredients). The Shadadhara Prathista which lies deep below consecrated idol has greater significance. The six principal parts of the Shadadhara Prathishta are the stone-seat of the idol, `Napumsakashila’ (stone of eunuch), `Yoganala’ (made of copper), `Kurma’ (stone of tortoise) and `Adharashila’. The six parts of the Shadadhara Prathishta is usually sanctified before invoking the spirit of the deity.
The six fundamental parts of the Shadadhara Prathishta are Adharashila (foundation stone), Nidikumbha (pot of gems), Ashtadalapadma (a lotus with eight petals), Kurma (stone of tortoise), Yoganala, Napumsakashila (stone of eunuch) and they simultaneously represent the Muladhara, Swadhinishtana, Manipuraka, Anahatha, Vishudhichakra, Aajnachakra of the Sukshmasharira in the human body. Before constructing the sanctum of the temple, a big square shaped pit is dug and its bottom is cleansed and a few religious rites are done to please Vasthupurusha, the god of land and fertility. This is followed by the consecration of Shadadhara Prathishta.
Muladhara as the foundation stone

Muladhara is the starting point of Sukshmasharira. The square-shaped Adharashila has an opening towards the centre of the upper sector and it stands for Muladhara. The Muladhara is set in the pit made at the area reserved for the construction of the sanctum and Shaktipooja is done here to please goddess Parvathi.
Swadishtana Chakra

The Swadishtana Chakra lies at the base of the penis. Brahma, the Lord of Creation is the deity associated with Swadishtana chakra. This chakra is made of grains since it depicts the beginning of new life. Swadishtana Chakra also symbolizes growth and fertility. Both Muladhara and Swadishtana represent the same stone.

Nidhikumbha is fixed on the top of Adharashila. Nidikumbha is designed in the form of a pot. It can be made either in stone or in copper. It is set on a grain-sprinkled stone-seat with the chanting of ‘Pranavamantra’. During the time of placement, Nidhikumbha is filled with gems and it’s a portrayal of Manipuraka.

Ashtadalapadma (a lotus with eight petals) carved in stone is fixed on the top of Nidhikumbha. This Ashtadalapadma symbolizes the anahathachakra which occupies a position in the heart of the human body. This Anahathachakra serves the part of a lid for nidhikumbha. A ritual called `Lipipankajapooja’ is done here. In addition to this, Kurma (a stone of tortoise) is fixed on the top of ashtadalapadma in a direction in which the idol of the deity has to be consecrated. Kurma is a life-sustaining force which has puranic significance and it lies in the anahathachakra.

The Yoganala is erected and fixed right on the top of Kurma. The yoganala which is made of copper has a hollow interior and has two inches width towards the foot and twelve to thirteen inches width towards the head. The Yoganala represents Vishudhichakra. The larynx or the voice box, a part of human Sukshmasharira which links the face and the chest is a depiction of vishudhichakra. The yoganala is an indication of larynx and vishudhichakra.

The Napumsakashila (stone of eunuch) is fixed on the summit of Kurma. The place where the yoganala touches the napumsakashila is called ajnaachakra. This ajnaachakra is associated with the Supreme Soul or the Paramatma whereas, the napumsakashila is indicative of omkara. The mind which is a part of sukshmasharira exists in the lotus of ajnaachakra.
The erection of idol on Sahasrarapadma

The idol of the deity is fixed on the stone-seat erected above the napumsakashila. The stone-seat of the deity is always made in a stone of feminine properties. The erected idol is a representation of Shiva and the stone-seat is a representation of Shakhty (Parvati). According to Hindu mythology, the fusion of male and female powers brings salvation. This phenomenon is a portrayal of the fusion of Shiva-Parvati powers in the sahasrarapadma (shivashaktisamyoga). The Shakhty (power) of goddess parvathi surpasses all the six chakras and reaches the sahasrarapadma of the yogi and there it fuses with lord shiva. The erected idol of lord shiva merges with this Shakhty of goddess parvathi. In other words, the shadadharaprathishta and the sanctum of the temple are built in the place of sahasrarapadma. A yogi who attains salvation will be blessed with the flow of nectar (amritadhara) from his head and this nectar is poured into the seventy-two thousand nerves of the devotee. The holy water (theerdham) that is showered on the idol of the deity in a temple signifies the concept of ‘amrithadhara’.
The major inference that can be drawn from this paper is that the shadadharaprathishta is actually a representation of the Sukshmasharira of a yogi. The Shadadhara pradishta is made in accordance with the tantric principles of construction existing in Kerala. It is an exact depiction of the sukhshmasharira of a yogi. It is really impossible for a materialistic man to attain the divinity experienced by a yogi. But it is believed that the temples of Kerala constructed with shadadharaprathishta can provide a devotee the divine presence of God, as felt by a yogi.